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After Great Britain and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in , British slave trade suppression activities began in through diplomatic efforts and formation of the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron. From , they were assisted by forces from the United States Navy. With the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of , the relationship with Britain was formalized, and the two countries jointly ran the Blockade of Africa with their navies.

Although Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware were slave states, the latter two already had a high proportion of free blacks by the outbreak of war.

Following the Revolution, the three legislatures made manumission easier, allowed by deed or will. Quaker and Methodist ministers particularly urged slaveholders to free their slaves. The number and proportion of freed slaves in these states rose dramatically until More than half of the number of free blacks in the United States were concentrated in the Upper South. The proportion of free blacks among the black population in the Upper South rose from less than one percent in to more than 10 percent by In the US as a whole, by the number of free blacks reached ,, or The growing international demand for cotton led many plantation owners further west in search of suitable land.

In addition, the invention of the cotton gin in enabled profitable processing of short-staple cotton, which could readily be grown in the uplands. The invention revolutionized the cotton industry by increasing fifty-fold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day.

At the end of the War of , fewer than , bales of cotton were produced nationally. By the amount of cotton produced had increased to , bales, and by it had reached 4,, There was an explosive growth of cotton cultivation throughout the Deep South and greatly increased demand for slave labor to support it. Most of the slaves sold from the Upper South were from Maryland , Virginia , and the Carolinas , where changes in agriculture decreased the need for their labor and the demand for slaves.

Before , primary destinations for the slaves who were sold were Kentucky and Tennessee , but after Georgia , Alabama , Mississippi , Louisiana and Texas of the Deep South received the most slaves. This is where cotton became king. By , the domestic slave trade had become a major economic activity in the United States; it lasted until the s.

By the slave population in the United States had reached 4 million. The historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration of slaves the "Second Middle Passage", because it reproduced many of the same horrors as the Middle Passage the name given to the transportation of slaves from Africa to North America.

These sales of slaves broke up many families and caused much hardship. Characterizing it as the "central event" in the life of a slave between the American Revolution and the Civil War, Berlin wrote that whether slaves were directly uprooted or lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "the massive deportation traumatized black people, both slave and free.

Added to the earlier colonists combining slaves from different tribes, many ethnic Africans lost their knowledge of varying tribal origins in Africa. Most were descended from families who had been in the United States for many generations. In the s, almost , slaves were transported, with Alabama and Mississippi receiving , each. During each decade between and , at least , slaves were moved from their state of origin. In the final decade before the Civil War, , were moved.

Michael Tadman wrote in Speculators and Slaves: Slave traders transported two-thirds of the slaves who moved west. Slave traders had little interest in purchasing or transporting intact slave families; in the early years, planters demanded only the young male slaves needed for heavy labor.

Later, in the interest of creating a "self-reproducing labor force", planters purchased nearly equal numbers of men and women. The internal slave trade became the largest enterprise in the South outside the plantation itself, and probably the most advanced in its employment of modern transportation, finance, and publicity.

The slave trade industry developed its own unique language, with terms such as "prime hands, bucks, breeding wenches, and "fancy girls" coming into common use. The expansion of the interstate slave trade contributed to the "economic revival of once depressed seaboard states" as demand accelerated the value of slaves who were subject to sale.

Some traders moved their "chattels" by sea, with Norfolk to New Orleans being the most common route, but most slaves were forced to walk overland. Others were shipped downriver from such markets as Louisville on the Ohio River, and Natchez on the Mississippi.

Traders created regular migration routes served by a network of slave pens, yards, and warehouses needed as temporary housing for the slaves. In addition, other vendors provided clothes, food, and supplies for slaves. As the trek advanced, some slaves were sold and new ones purchased. Berlin concluded, "In all, the slave trade, with its hubs and regional centers, its spurs and circuits, reached into every cranny of southern society.

Few southerners, black or white, were untouched. Once the trip ended, slaves faced a life on the frontier significantly different from most labor in the Upper South. Clearing trees and starting crops on virgin fields was harsh and backbreaking work. A combination of inadequate nutrition, bad water, and exhaustion from both the journey and the work weakened the newly arrived slaves and produced casualties.

New plantations were located at rivers' edges for ease of transportation and travel. Mosquitoes and other environmental challenges spread disease, which took the lives of many slaves.

They had acquired only limited immunities to lowland diseases in their previous homes. The death rate was so high that, in the first few years of hewing a plantation out of the wilderness, some planters preferred whenever possible to use rented slaves rather than their own.

The harsh conditions on the frontier increased slave resistance and led owners and overseers to rely on violence for control. Many of the slaves were new to cotton fields and unaccustomed to the "sunrise-to-sunset gang labor" required by their new life.

Slaves were driven much harder than when they had been in growing tobacco or wheat back east. Slaves had less time and opportunity to improve the quality of their lives by raising their own livestock or tending vegetable gardens, for either their own consumption or trade, as they could in the east.

In Louisiana , French colonists had established sugar cane plantations and exported sugar as the chief commodity crop. After the Louisiana Purchase in , Americans entered the state and joined the sugar cultivation. Between and , planters bought slaves from the North and the number of slaves increased from less than 10, to more than 42, Planters preferred young males, who represented two-thirds of the slave purchases. Dealing with sugar cane was even more physically demanding than growing cotton.

The largely young, unmarried male slave force made the reliance on violence by the owners "especially savage". New Orleans became nationally important as a slave market and port, as slaves were shipped from there upriver by steamboat to plantations on the Mississippi River; it also sold slaves who had been shipped downriver from markets such as Louisville. By , it had the largest slave market in North America. It became the wealthiest and the fourth-largest city in the nation, based chiefly on the slave trade and associated businesses.

Slave traders were men of low reputation, even in the South. In the presidential election, candidate Andrew Jackson was strongly criticized by opponents as a slave trader who transacted in slaves in defiance of modern standards or morality. The treatment of slaves in the United States varied widely depending on conditions, times and places. The power relationships of slavery corrupted many whites who had authority over slaves, with children showing their own cruelty. Masters and overseers resorted to physical punishments to impose their wills.

Slaves were punished by whipping, shackling, hanging, beating, burning, mutilation, branding and imprisonment. Punishment was most often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but sometimes abuse was carried out to re-assert the dominance of the master or overseer of the slave. William Wells Brown , who escaped to freedom, reported that on one plantation, slave men were required to pick 80 pounds per day of cotton, while women were required to pick 70 pounds; if any slave failed in his or her quota, they were subject to whip lashes for each pound they were short.

The whipping post stood next to the cotton scales. According to Adalberto Aguirre, there were 1, slaves executed in the U. Although most slaves had lives that were very restricted in terms of their movements and agency, exceptions existed to virtually every generalization; for instance, there were also slaves who had considerable freedom in their daily lives: Slaveholders published articles in southern agricultural journals to share best practices in treatment and management of slaves; they intended to show that their system was better than the living conditions of northern industrial workers.

Medical care for slaves was limited in terms of the medical knowledge available to anyone. It was generally provided by other slaves or by slaveholders' family members. Many slaves possessed medical skills needed to tend to each other, and used folk remedies brought from Africa.

They also developed new remedies based on American plants and herbs. According to Andrew Fede, a master could be held criminally liable for killing a slave only if the slave he killed was "completely submissive and under the master's absolute control". Because of the power relationships at work, slave women in the United States were at high risk for rape and sexual abuse.

Others carried psychological and physical scars from the attacks. Elizabeth Hemings and her daughter Sally Hemings the half-sister of Jefferson's late wife , respectively. Both Mary Chesnut and Fanny Kemble , wives of planters, wrote about this issue in the antebellum South in the decades before the Civil War.

Sometimes planters used mixed-race slaves as house servants or favored artisans because they were their children or other relatives. While slaves' living conditions were poor by modern standards, Robert Fogel argued that all workers, free or slave, during the first half of the 19th century were subject to hardship.

To help regulate the relationship between slave and owner, including legal support for keeping the slave as property, states established slave codes , most based on laws existing since the colonial era. The code for the District of Columbia defined a slave as "a human being, who is by law deprived of his or her liberty for life, and is the property of another". While each state had its own slave code, many concepts were shared throughout the slave states.

This prohibition was unique to American slavery, believed to reduce slaves forming aspirations that could lead to escape or rebellion. In Alabama, slaves were not allowed to leave their master's premises without written consent or passes.

This was a common requirement in other states as well, and locally run patrols known to slaves as pater rollers often checked the passes of slaves who appeared to be away from their plantations. In Alabama slaves were prohibited from trading goods among themselves. In Virginia, a slave was not permitted to drink in public within one mile of his master or during public gatherings. Slaves were not permitted to carry firearms in any of the slave states. Slaves were generally prohibited by law from associating in groups, with the exception of worship services a reason why the Black church is such a notable institution in black communities today.

Following Nat Turner 's rebellion in , which raised white fears throughout the South, some states also prohibited or restricted religious gatherings of slaves, or required that they be officiated by white men. Planters feared that group meetings would facilitate communication among slaves that could lead to rebellion. In Ohio, an emancipated slave was prohibited from returning to the state in which he or she had been enslaved.

Other northern states discouraged the settling of free blacks within their boundaries. Fearing the influence of free blacks, Virginia and other southern states passed laws to require blacks who had been freed to leave the state within a year or sometimes less time unless granted a stay by an act of the legislature. The United States Constitution , adopted in , prevented Congress from completely banning the importation of slaves until , although Congress regulated it in the Slave Trade Act of , and in subsequent Acts in and By contrast, the states of Georgia and South Carolina reopened their trade due to demand by their upland planters, who were developing new cotton plantations: Georgia from until December 31, , and South Carolina from In that period, Charleston traders imported about 75, slaves, more than were brought to South Carolina in the 75 years before the Revolution.

By January 1, , when Congress banned further imports , South Carolina was the only state that still allowed importation of slaves. Congress allowed continued trade only in slaves who were descendants of those currently in the United States. In addition, US citizens could participate financially in the international slave trade and the outfitting of ships for that trade. The domestic slave trade became extremely profitable as demand rose with the expansion of cultivation in the Deep South for cotton and sugar cane crops.

Slavery in the United States became, more or less, self-sustaining by natural increase among the current slaves and their descendants. Despite the ban, slave imports continued through smugglers bringing in slaves past the U. After that, "it is unlikely that more than 10, [slaves] were successfully landed in the United States. During the War of , British Royal Navy commanders of the blockading fleet, based at the Bermuda dockyard , were instructed to offer freedom to defecting American slaves, as the Crown had during the Revolutionary War.

Thousands of escaped slaves went over to the Crown with their families. The freedmen fought for Britain throughout the Atlantic campaign, including the attack on Washington D. Seven hundred of these ex-marines were granted land they reportedly organised themselves in villages along the lines of their military companies.

Descendants have established the Black Loyalist Heritage Museum and website. Slaveholders, primarily in the South, had considerable "loss of property" as thousands of slaves escaped to British lines or ships for freedom, despite the difficulties. The Americans protested that Britain's failure to return all slaves violated the Treaty of Ghent. Prior to the American Revolution, masters and revivalists spread Christianity to slave communities, supported by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

In the First Great Awakening of the midth century, Baptists and Methodists from New England preached a message against slavery, encouraged masters to free their slaves, converted both slaves and free blacks, and gave them active roles in new congregations.

Over the decades and with the growth of slavery throughout the South, Baptist and Methodist ministers gradually changed their messages to accommodate the institution.

After , white Southerners argued for the compatibility of Christianity and slavery, with a multitude of both Old and New Testament citations. In the s and s, the issue of accepting slavery split the nation's largest religious denominations the Methodist , Baptist and Presbyterian churches into separate Northern and Southern organizations see Methodist Episcopal Church, South , Southern Baptist Convention , and Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America.

Southern slaves generally attended their masters' white churches, where they often outnumbered the white congregants. They were usually permitted to sit only in the back or in the balcony.

They listened to white preachers, who emphasized the obligation of slaves to keep in their place, and acknowledged the slave's identity as both person and property.

This included masters having self-control, not disciplining under anger, not threatening, and ultimately fostering Christianity among their slaves by example. Slaves also created their own religious observances, meeting alone without the supervision of their white masters or ministers. The larger plantations with groups of slaves numbering twenty, or more, tended to be centers of nighttime meetings of one or several plantation slave populations.

African Americans developed a theology related to Biblical stories having the most meaning for them, including the hope for deliverance from slavery by their own Exodus. One lasting influence of these secret congregations is the African-American spiritual. According to Herbert Aptheker, "there were few phases of ante-bellum Southern life and history that were not in some way influenced by the fear of, or the actual outbreak of, militant concerted slave action.

Historians in the 20th century identified to slave uprisings in U. In , Nat Turner , a literate slave who claimed to have spiritual visions , organized a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia ; it was sometimes called the Southampton Insurrection.

Turner and his followers killed nearly 60 white inhabitants, mostly women and children. Many of the men in the area were attending a religious event in North Carolina. In a frenzy of fear and retaliation, the militia killed more than slaves who had not been involved in the rebellion.

Planters whipped hundreds of innocent slaves to ensure resistance was quelled. This rebellion prompted Virginia and other slave states to pass more restrictions on slaves and free people of color, controlling their movement and requiring more white supervision of gatherings.

In North Carolina withdrew the franchise for free people of color, and they lost their vote. Across the South, white legislatures enacted harsh new laws to curtail the already limited rights of African Americans. Virginia prohibited blacks, free or slave, from practicing preaching, prohibited blacks from owning firearms, and forbade anyone to teach slaves or free blacks how to read.

Any justice may issue his warrant to any office or other person, requiring him to enter any place where such assemblage may be, and seize any negro therein; and he, or any other justice, may order such negro to be punished with stripes. Unlike in the South, slave owners in Utah were required to send their slaves to school. Eli Whitney 's invention of the cotton gin in , made processing of short-staple cotton profitable, and it was cultivated throughout the South to satisfy US and international demand.

New York introduced gradual emancipation in completed in Pennsylvania abolished slavery during the War for Independence. Some economists and historians [ who? They do not fully account for the government costs necessary to maintain the institution, nor for human suffering.

The transition from indentured servants to slaves is cited to show that slaves offered greater profits to their owners. Indentured servants became more costly with the increase in the demand of skilled labor in England.

In the decades preceding the civil war, the United States experienced a rapid natural increase of black population. Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman , in their book Time on the Cross , argued that the rate of return of slavery at the market price was close to 10 percent, a number close to investment in other assets. Fogel's work, Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery , elaborated on the moral indictment of slavery which ultimately led to its abolition.

Scholars disagree on how to quantify efficiency of slavery. In Time on the Cross , Fogel and Engerman equate efficiency to total factor productivity TFP —the output per average unit of input on a farm.

Under the Gang System, groups of slaves perform synchronized tasks under the constant vigilance of an overseer. Each group was like a part of a machine. If perceived to be working below his capacity, a slave could be punished. Fogel argues that this kind of negative enforcement was not frequent and that slaves and free laborers had similar quality of life; however, there is controversy on this last point.

The study found that 72 percent of economists and 65 percent of economic historians would generally agree that "Slave agriculture was efficient compared with free agriculture. Economies of scale, effective management, and intensive utilization of labor and capital made southern slave agriculture considerably more efficient than nonslave southern farming.

On the other hand, 58 percent of economic historians and 42 percent of economists disagreed with Fogel and Engerman's "proposition that the material not psychological conditions of the lives of slaves compared favorably with those of free industrial workers in the decades before the Civil War". Controlling for inflation, prices of slaves rose dramatically in the six decades prior to Civil War, reflecting demand due to commodity cotton, as well as use of slaves in shipping and industry.

Although the prices of slaves relative to indentured servants declined, both got more expensive. Cotton production was rising and relied on the use of slaves to yield high profits. Fogel and Engeman initially argued that if the Civil War had not happened, the slave prices would have increased even more, an average of more than 50 percent by Prices reflected the characteristics of the slave—such factors as sex, age, nature, and height were all taken into account to determine the price of a slave.

Over the life-cycle, the price of enslaved women was higher than their male counterparts up to puberty age, as they would likely bear children and produce more slaves, in addition to serving as laborers. Men around the age of 25 were the most valued, as they were at the highest level of productivity and still had a considerable life-span.

If slaves had a history of fights or escapes, their price was lowered reflecting what planters believed was risk of repeating such behavior. Slave traders and buyers would examine a slave's back for whipping scars—a large number of injuries would be seen as evidence of laziness or rebelliousness, rather than the previous master's brutality, and would lower the slave's price. The conditions of the market led to shocks in the supply and demand of slaves, which in turn changed prices.

For instance, slaves became more expensive after the decrease in supply caused by the ban on importation of slaves in The market for the products of their work also affected slaves' economic value: Anticipation of changes also had a huge influence on prices. While slavery brought profits in the short run, discussion continues on the economic benefits of slavery in the long-run. In , a random anonymous survey of members of the Economic History Association found that out of the 40 propositions about American economic history that were surveyed, the propositions most disputed by economic historians and economists were those surrounding the postbellum economy of the American South.

The only exception was the proposition initially put forward by historian Gavin Wright [] that the "modern period of the South's economic convergence to the level of the North only began in earnest when the institutional foundations of the southern regional labor market were undermined, largely by federal farm and labor legislation dating from the s.

There was little public investment in railroads or other infrastructure. Wright argues that agricultural technology was far more developed in the South, representing an economic advantage of the South over the North of the United States.

In Democracy in America , Alexis de Tocqueville noted that "the colonies in which there were no slaves became more populous and more rich than those in which slavery flourished. Lindert and Jeffrey G. By , per capita income in the South was well behind the Northeast and the national average. This is also true of contemporary incomes in the United States in the early 21st century.

Robinson call "a reversal of fortune". He notes that slave societies reflected similar economic trends in those and other parts of the world, suggesting that the trend Lindert and Williamson identify may have continued until the American Civil War:. Both in Brazil and in the United States—the countries with the two largest slave populations in the Western Hemisphere—the end of slavery found the regions in which slaves had been concentrated poorer than other regions of these same countries.

For the United States, a case could be made that this was due to the Civil War, which did so much damage to the South, but no such explanation would apply to Brazil, which fought no Civil War over this issue. Although slavery in Europe died out before it was abolished in the Western Hemisphere, as late as slavery had not yet died out all across the continent when Adam Smith wrote in The Wealth of Nations that it still existed in some eastern regions.

But, even then, Eastern Europe was much poorer than Western Europe. The slavery of North Africa and the Middle East, over the centuries, took more slaves from sub-Saharan Africa than the Western Hemisphere did… But these remained largely poor countries until the discovery and extraction of their vast oil deposits.

Sowell also notes in Ethnic America: A History , citing historians Clement Eaton and Eugene Genovese , that three-quarters of Southern white families owned no slaves at all. In short, even though some individual slaveowners grew rich and some family fortunes were founded on the exploitation of slaves, that is very different from saying that the whole society, or even its non-slave population as a whole, was more economically advanced than it would have been in the absence of slavery.

What this means is that, whether employed as domestic servants or producing crops or other goods, millions suffered exploitation and dehumanization for no higher purpose than the Because of the three-fifths compromise in the U. Constitution, in which slaves counted in the calculation of how many representatives a state had in Congress though only three-fifths as much as a free person , the planter class had long held power in Congress out of proportion to the total number of free people in the US population as a whole.

In , Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act , which required law enforcement and citizens of free states to cooperate in the capture and return of slaves.

This met with considerable overt and covert resistance in free states and cities such as Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Some white northerners helped hide former slaves from their former owners or helped them reach freedom in Canada.

As part of the Compromise of , Congress abolished the domestic slave trade though not the legality of slavery in the District of Columbia. After , Republicans argued that the Slave Power , especially the pro-slavery Democratic Party , controlled two of the three branches of the Federal government.

The abolitionists, realizing that the total elimination of slavery was, as an immediate goal, unrealistic, had worked to prevent expansion of slavery into the new states formed out of the Western territories.

The Missouri Compromise , the Compromise of , and the Bleeding Kansas crisis dealt with whether new states would be slave or free, or how that was to be decided.

Both sides were anxious about effects of these decisions on the balance of power in the Senate. After the passage of the Kansas—Nebraska Act in , border fighting broke out in Kansas Territory , where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave or free state was left to the inhabitants. Migrants from free and slave states moved into the territory to prepare for the vote on slavery.

Abolitionist John Brown was active in the fighting in "Bleeding Kansas," but so too were many white Southerners who opposed abolition. Abraham Lincoln's and the Republicans' political platform in was to stop slavery's expansion. Historian James McPherson says that in a famous speech in , Lincoln said American republicanism can be purified by restricting the further expansion of slavery as the first step to putting it on the road to 'ultimate extinction.

When he won the presidency they left the Union to escape the 'ultimate extinction' of slavery. With the development of slave and free states after the American Revolution, and far-flung commercial and military activities, new situations arose in which slaves might be taken by masters into free states. Most free states not only prohibited slavery, but ruled that slaves brought and kept there illegally could be freed.

Such cases were sometimes known as transit cases. Dred Scott and his wife Harriet Scott each sued for freedom in St. Louis after the death of their master, based on their having been held in a free territory the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase from which slavery was excluded under the terms of the Missouri Compromise.

Later the two cases were combined under Dred Scott's name. Scott filed suit for freedom in and went through two state trials, the first denying and the second granting freedom to the couple and, by extension, their two daughters, who had also been held illegally in free territories. For 28 years, Missouri state precedent had generally respected laws of neighboring free states and territories, ruling for freedom in such transit cases where slaves had been held illegally in free territory.

But in the Dred Scott case, the State Supreme Court ruled against the slaves, saying that "times were not what they once were". After Scott and his team appealed the case to the U.

Taney denied Scott his freedom in a sweeping decision. The decision , decided 7—2, held that a slave did not become free when taken into a free state; Congress could not bar slavery from a territory; and people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants, could never be citizens. A state could not bar slaveowners from bringing slaves into that state. Many Republicans, including Abraham Lincoln , considered the decision unjust and as proof that the Slave Power had seized control of the Supreme Court.

Written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney , the decision effectively barred slaves and their descendants from citizenship. Abolitionists were enraged and slave owners encouraged, contributing to tensions on this subject that led to civil war.

The divisions became fully exposed with the presidential election. The electorate split four ways. The Southern Democrats endorsed slavery, while the Republicans denounced it.

The Northern Democrats said democracy required the people to decide on slavery locally, state by state and territory by territory. The Constitutional Union Party said the survival of the Union was at stake and everything else should be compromised. Lincoln, the Republican, won with a plurality of popular votes and a majority of electoral votes. Lincoln, however, did not appear on the ballots of ten southern slave states.

Many slave owners in the South feared that the real intent of the Republicans was the abolition of slavery in states where it already existed, and that the sudden emancipation of four million slaves would be disastrous for the slave owners and for the economy that drew its greatest profits from the labor of people who were not paid. The slave owners also argued that banning slavery in new states would upset what they saw as a delicate balance of free states and slave states.

They feared that ending this balance could lead to the domination of the federal government by the northern free states. This led seven southern states to secede from the Union. Northern leaders had viewed the slavery interests as a threat politically, but with secession, they viewed the prospect of a new Southern nation, the Confederate States of America , with control over the Mississippi River and parts of the West , as politically unacceptable. The consequent American Civil War , beginning in , led to the end of chattel slavery in America.

Not long after the war broke out, through a legal maneuver credited to Union General Benjamin F. Butler , a lawyer by profession, slaves who came into Union "possession" were considered "contraband of war".

General Butler ruled that they were not subject to return to Confederate owners as they had been before the war. Soon word spread, and many slaves sought refuge in Union territory, desiring to be declared "contraband". Many of the "contrabands" joined the Union Army as workers or troops, forming entire regiments of the U. Others went to refugee camps such as the Grand Contraband Camp near Fort Monroe or fled to northern cities.

General Butler's interpretation was reinforced when Congress passed the Confiscation Act of , which declared that any property used by the Confederate military, including slaves, could be confiscated by Union forces. At the beginning of the war, some Union commanders thought they were supposed to return escaped slaves to their masters.

By , when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general. The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor. It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production.

As Congressman George W. Julian of Indiana put it in an speech in Congress, the slaves "cannot be neutral. As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union.

In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U. It had the practical effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally and actually free. Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army.

By June , the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and had liberated all of the designated slaves. In , Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states. He believed that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game.

Lincoln mentioned his Emancipation Proclamation to members of his cabinet on July 21, Secretary of State William H. Seward told Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing the proclamation, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat".

Lincoln later said that slavery was "somehow the cause of the war". Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, , and said that a final proclamation would be issued if his gradual plan, based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization, was rejected.

Only the District of Columbia accepted Lincoln's gradual plan, and Lincoln issued his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, In his letter to Hodges, Lincoln explained his belief that. If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong … And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling … I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me.

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, was a powerful action that promised freedom for slaves in the Confederacy as soon as the Union armies reached them, and authorized the enlistment of African Americans in the Union Army.

The Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in the Union-allied slave-holding states that bordered the Confederacy. Since the Confederate States did not recognize the authority of President Lincoln, and the proclamation did not apply in the border states , at first the proclamation freed only those slaves who had escaped behind Union lines. The proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal that was implemented as the Union took territory from the Confederacy.

Based on the President's war powers, the Emancipation Proclamation applied to territory held by Confederates at the time. However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty. Enslaved African Americans had not waited for Lincoln before escaping and seeking freedom behind Union lines. From early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in Union-controlled areas such as Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in Virginia, Tennessee from on, the line of Sherman's march, etc.

So many African Americans fled to Union lines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults and children learned to read and write. The American Missionary Association entered the war effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance, establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations.

In addition, nearly , African-American men served with distinction in the Union forces as soldiers and sailors. Most were escaped slaves. The Confederacy was outraged by armed black soldiers and refused to treat them as prisoners of war. They murdered many, as at the Fort Pillow Massacre , and re-enslaved others. Tennessee and all of the border states except Kentucky abolished slavery by early Thousands of slaves were freed by the operation of the Emancipation Proclamation as Union armies marched across the South.

Emancipation came to the remaining southern slaves after the surrender of all Confederate troops in spring In spite of the South's shortage of manpower, until , most Southern leaders opposed arming slaves as soldiers. However, a few Confederates discussed arming slaves. Finally in early General Robert E. Lee said black soldiers were essential, and legislation was passed. The first black units were in training when the war ended in April.

Washington remembered Emancipation Day in early , when he was a boy of nine in Virginia: As the great day drew nearer, there was more singing in the slave quarters than usual. It was bolder, had more ring, and lasted later into the night. Most of the verses of the plantation songs had some reference to freedom Some man who seemed to be a stranger a United States officer, I presume made a little speech and then read a rather long paper—the Emancipation Proclamation, I think.

After the reading we were told that we were all free, and could go when and where we pleased. My mother, who was standing by my side, leaned over and kissed her children, while tears of joy ran down her cheeks. She explained to us what it all meant, that this was the day for which she had been so long praying, but fearing that she would never live to see.

The war ended on June 22, , and following that surrender, the Emancipation Proclamation was enforced throughout remaining regions of the South that had not yet freed the slaves. Slavery officially continued for a couple of months in other locations.

That day of gaining freedom in Texas is now celebrated as Juneteenth in many U.

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