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Misogyny is manifest in numerous ways, including social exclusion , sex discrimination , hostility , androcentrism , patriarchy , male privilege , belittling of women, violence against women , and sexual objectification. According to sociologist Allan G. Johnson, "misogyny is a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female".

Misogyny is manifested in many different ways, from jokes to pornography to violence to the self-contempt women may be taught to feel toward their own bodies. Sociologist Michael Flood at the University of Wollongong defines misogyny as the hatred of women, and notes:.

Though most common in men, misogyny also exists in and is practiced by women against other women or even themselves. Misogyny functions as an ideology or belief system that has accompanied patriarchal, or male-dominated societies for thousands of years and continues to place women in subordinate positions with limited access to power and decision making.

Dictionaries define misogyny as "hatred of women" [6] [7] [8] and as "hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women". In his book City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens , J. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as Hesiod. The earlier, longer, and more complete passage comes from a moral tract known as On Marriage c.

He then offers an example of this, quoting from a lost play of Euripides in which the merits of a dutiful wife are praised. The other surviving use of the original Greek word is by Chrysippus , in a fragment from On affections , quoted by Galen in Hippocrates on Affections. Chrysippus' point is more abstract than Antipater's, and Galen quotes the passage as an example of an opinion contrary to his own.

What is clear, however, is that he groups hatred of women with hatred of humanity generally, and even hatred of wine. It is this issue of conflicted or alternating emotions that was philosophically contentious to the ancient writers.

Ricardo Salles suggests that the general stoic view was that "[a] man may not only alternate between philogyny and misogyny, philanthropy and misanthropy, but be prompted to each by the other.

Aristotle has also been accused of being a misogynist; he has written that women were inferior to men. According to Cynthia Freeland Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity': In the Routledge philosophy guidebook to Plato and the Republic , Nickolas Pappas describes the "problem of misogyny" and states:.

In the Apology , Socrates calls those who plead for their lives in court "no better than women" 35b The Timaeus warns men that if they live immorally they will be reincarnated as women 42b-c; cf. The Republic contains a number of comments in the same spirit e, d-e, e, b-c, d , evidence of nothing so much as of contempt toward women. Even Socrates' words for his bold new proposal about marriage He never says that the men might be held in common by the women We also have to acknowledge Socrates' insistence that men surpass women at any task that both sexes attempt c, a , and his remark in Book 8 that one sign of democracy's moral failure is the sexual equality it promotes b.

It was the title of a play by Menander , which we know of from book seven concerning Alexandria of Strabo 's 17 volume Geography , [21] [22] and quotations of Menander by Clement of Alexandria and Stobaeus that relate to marriage.

Cicero reports that Greek philosophers considered misogyny to be caused by gynophobia , a fear of women. It is the same with other diseases; as the desire of glory, a passion for women, to which the Greeks give the name of philogyneia: But those feelings which are the contrary of these are supposed to have fear for their foundation, as a hatred of women, such as is displayed in the Woman-hater of Atilius; or the hatred of the whole human species, as Timon is reported to have done, whom they call the Misanthrope.

Of the same kind is inhospitality. And all these diseases proceed from a certain dread of such things as they hate and avoid. In summary, Greek literature considered misogyny to be a disease —an anti-social condition—in that it ran contrary to their perceptions of the value of women as wives and of the family as the foundation of society.

These points are widely noted in the secondary literature. The World's Oldest Prejudice , Jack Holland argues that there is evidence of misogyny in the mythology of the ancient world.

In Greek mythology according to Hesiod, the human race had already experienced a peaceful, autonomous existence as a companion to the gods before the creation of women. When Prometheus decides to steal the secret of fire from the gods, Zeus becomes infuriated and decides to punish humankind with an "evil thing for their delight". This "evil thing" is Pandora , the first woman, who carried a jar usually described—incorrectly—as a box which she was told to never open.

Epimetheus the brother of Prometheus is overwhelmed by her beauty, disregards Prometheus' warnings about her, and marries her. Pandora cannot resist peeking into the jar, and by opening it she unleashes into the world all evil; labour , sickness , old age , and death. In his book The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender , professor Bernard Faure of Columbia University argued generally that "Buddhism is paradoxically neither as sexist nor as egalitarian as is usually thought.

While some scholars see Buddhism as part of a movement of emancipation, others see it as a source of oppression. Perhaps this is only a distinction between optimists and pessimists, if not between idealists and realists As we begin to realize, the term "Buddhism" does not designate a monolithic entity, but covers a number of doctrines, ideologies, and practices--some of which seem to invite, tolerate, and even cultivate "otherness" on their margins.

Differences in tradition and interpretations of scripture have caused sects of Christianity to differ in their beliefs with regard their treatment of women. Rogers argues that Christianity is misogynistic, and she lists what she says are specific examples of misogyny in the Pauline epistles.

The foundations of early Christian misogyny — its guilt about sex, its insistence on female subjection, its dread of female seduction — are all in St. Ruthven's Feminist Literary Studies: An Introduction , Ruthven makes reference to Rogers' book and argues that the "legacy of Christian misogyny was consolidated by the so-called 'Fathers' of the Church, like Tertullian , who thought a woman was not only 'the gateway of the devil' but also 'a temple built over a sewer'.

However, some other scholars have argued that Christianity does not include misogynistic principles, or at least that a proper interpretation of Christianity would not include misogynistic principles. Scholer, a biblical scholar at Fuller Theological Seminary , stated that the verse Galatians 3: Rinck has written that Christian social culture often allows a misogynist "misuse of the biblical ideal of submission". However, she argues that this a distortion of the "healthy relationship of mutual submission" which is actually specified in Christian doctrine, where "[l]ove is based on a deep, mutual respect as the guiding principle behind all decisions, actions, and plans".

The fourth chapter or sura of the Quran is called "Women" An-Nisa. The 34th verse is a key verse in feminist criticism of Islam. In his book Popular Islam and Misogyny: Although there is no way of defending the so-called "great" traditions of Islam as libertarian and egalitarian with regard to women, we may draw a line between the Quranic texts and the corpus of avowedly misogynic writing and spoken words by the mullah having very little or no relevance to the Quran.

In his book No god but God , University of Southern California professor Reza Aslan wrote that "misogynistic interpretation" has been persistently attached to An-Nisa, 34 because commentary on the Quran "has been the exclusive domain of Muslim men". Reynolds and Julie A. Webber have written that Guru Nanak , the founder of the Sikh faith tradition, was a "fighter for women's rights" that was "in no way misogynistic" in contrast to some of his contemporaries.

In his book Scientology: A New Slant on Life , L. Ron Hubbard wrote the following passage:. A society in which women are taught anything but the management of a family, the care of men, and the creation of the future generation is a society which is on its way out.

The historian can peg the point where a society begins its sharpest decline at the instant when women begin to take part, on an equal footing with men, in political and business affairs, since this means that the men are decadent and the women are no longer women. This is not a sermon on the role or position of women; it is a statement of bald and basic fact.

These passages, along with other ones of a similar nature from Hubbard, have been criticised by Alan Scherstuhl of The Village Voice as expressions of hatred towards women. Gordon Melton has written that Hubbard later disregarded and abrogated much of his earlier views about women, which Melton views as merely echoes of common prejudices at the time. Melton has also stated that the Church of Scientology welcomes both genders equally at all levels—from leadership positions to auditing and so on—since Scientologists view people as spiritual beings.

Aristotle believed women were inferior and described them as "deformed males". Another example is Cynthia's catalog where Cynthia states "Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity'.

He claimed that women are "more mischievous, less simple, more impulsive Jean-Jacques Rousseau is well known for his views against equal rights for women for example in his treatise Emile , he writes: They must be thwarted from an early age They must be exercised to constraint, so that it costs them nothing to stifle all their fantasies to submit them to the will of others.

Charles Darwin wrote on the subject female inferiority through the lens of human evolution. Darwin believed all savages, children and women had smaller brains and therefore led more by instinct and less by reason. Martineau had just returned from a whirlwind tour of America, and was full of married women's property rights Perfect equality of rights is part of her doctrine We must pray for our poor "nigger. Arthur Schopenhauer has been noted as a misogynist by many such as the philosopher, critic, and author Tom Grimwood.

Other works he noted consisted of Schopenhauer's argument that women's only role in nature is to further the species through childbirth and hence is equipped with the power to seduce and "capture" men. For her to function beyond her rational subjugator is a threat against men as well as other women, he notes.

Schopenhauer also thought women's cheerfulness is an expression of her lack of morality and incapability to understand abstract or objective meaning such as art. Proceeding from the heart of this, it is bound to spread its noxious influence to all parts. He argued that women are "by nature meant to obey" as they are "childish, frivolous, and short sighted".

It is only a man whose intellect is clouded by his sexual impulse that could give the name of the fair sex to that under-sized, narrow-shouldered, broad-hipped, and short-legged race; for the whole beauty of the sex is bound up with this impulse. Instead of calling them beautiful there would be more warrant for describing women as the unaesthetic sex. In Beyond Good and Evil , Friedrich Nietzsche stated that stricter controls on women was a condition of "every elevation of culture".

Do not forget the whip! Because we never fathom their depths. But women aren't even shallow. Hegel's view of women can be characterized as misogynistic. Women are capable of education, but they are not made for activities which demand a universal faculty such as the more advanced sciences, philosophy and certain forms of artistic production Women regulate their actions not by the demands of universality, but by arbitrary inclinations and opinions.

Kate Manne is an analytic philosopher, assistant professor of philosophy at Cornell University , and author of Down Girl, the Logic of Misogyny.

Female | Definition of Female by Merriam-Webster

For her to function beyond her rational subjugator is a threat against men as well as other women, he notes. Schopenhauer also thought women's cheerfulness is an expression of her lack of morality and incapability to understand abstract or objective meaning such as art.

Proceeding from the heart of this, it is bound to spread its noxious influence to all parts. He argued that women are "by nature meant to obey" as they are "childish, frivolous, and short sighted".

It is only a man whose intellect is clouded by his sexual impulse that could give the name of the fair sex to that under-sized, narrow-shouldered, broad-hipped, and short-legged race; for the whole beauty of the sex is bound up with this impulse. Instead of calling them beautiful there would be more warrant for describing women as the unaesthetic sex. In Beyond Good and Evil , Friedrich Nietzsche stated that stricter controls on women was a condition of "every elevation of culture".

Do not forget the whip! Because we never fathom their depths. But women aren't even shallow. Hegel's view of women can be characterized as misogynistic. Women are capable of education, but they are not made for activities which demand a universal faculty such as the more advanced sciences, philosophy and certain forms of artistic production Women regulate their actions not by the demands of universality, but by arbitrary inclinations and opinions.

Kate Manne is an analytic philosopher, assistant professor of philosophy at Cornell University , and author of Down Girl, the Logic of Misogyny.

In her book, she argues that the tendency to treat misogyny as an individual character flaw is a "naive conception". She writes that misogyny is a cultural phenomenon that enforces gender norms and the policing of women's behavior. Moira Weigel writes of Manne's book:. Manne goes on to elaborate the gender norms that misogyny enforces.

We exist in a gendered economy in which women are assumed to owe men. Second, we must not ask men for the kinds of goods we give. Finally, women are not supposed to take masculine coded perks and privileges. The presidency, for instance. Manne proposes that sexism and misogyny are distinct. Sexism is an ideology, a set of beliefs, holding that it is natural, and therefore desirable, for men and women to perform these taking and giving roles.

Misogyny functions like a "police force", punishing women who deviate from them. Generally, this police force also rewards obedience — elevating women who advance patriarchal interests. But because it defines women in terms of a giving function, misogyny also tends to treat women as interchangeable. In order to take revenge on female classmates he felt had spurned him, Rodger set out to kill strangers — most of them sexually active males.

In other words, misogyny is not an individual character flaw. It is the way in which cultures keep women in subservient stations and positions within any given society. Misogynistic rhetoric is prevalent online and has grown rhetorically more aggressive. The public debate over gender-based attacks has increased significantly, leading to calls for policy interventions and better responses by social networks like Facebook and Twitter.

Most targets are women who are visible in the public sphere, women who speak out about the threats they receive, and women who are perceived to be associated with feminism or feminist gains. Authors of misogynistic messages are usually anonymous or otherwise difficult to identify.

Their rhetoric involves misogynistic epithets and graphic and sexualized imagery, centers on the women's physical appearance, and prescribes sexual violence as a corrective for the targeted women. The insults and threats directed at different women tend to be very similar.

Sady Doyle who has been the target of online threats noted the "overwhelmingly impersonal, repetitive, stereotyped quality" of the abuse, the fact that "all of us are being called the same things, in the same tone".

Kasomovic and Jefferey S. Kuznekoff found that male status mediates sexist behavior towards women. This study was one of the first notable pieces of evidence of inter -gender competition and has possible evolutionary implications for the origin of sexism. Internalized sexism is when an individual enacts sexist actions and attitudes towards themselves and people of their own sex.

Subscribers to one model say that some misogyny results from the Madonna—whore complex , which is the inability to see women as anything other than "mothers" or "whores"; people with this complex place each encountered woman into one of these categories. In the late 20th century, second-wave feminist theorists argued that misogyny is both a cause and a result of patriarchal social structures.

Sociologist Michael Flood has argued that "misandry lacks the systemic, trans-historic, institutionalized, and legislated antipathy of misogyny". The Nottinghamshire Police in was "the first force in the country to recognize misogyny as a hate crime", applying to "incidents ranging from street harassment to physical intrusions on women's space.

Thanks to [Nottinghamshire's] police force listening to local women's organisations, women and girls in Nottingham will receive the message that this kind of behaviour isn't normal or acceptable, that support is available, and that the problem will be taken seriously. On 7 March a debate that had the title "misogyny as a hate crime" was held in Westminster Hall and at the end of the debate hansard states that: Resolved, That this House has considered misogyny as a hate crime.

A research briefing paper was placed in the House of Commons library on 6 March and two parts of it, "police recording practices" and "recent calls for change", are quoted in the following paragraphs:. Camille Paglia , a self-described "dissident feminist" who has often been at odds with other academic feminists, argues that there are serious flaws in the Marxism -inspired [69] interpretation of misogyny that is prevalent in second-wave feminism. In contrast, Paglia argues that a close reading of historical texts reveals that men do not hate women but fear them.

Connell 's theory of hegemonic masculinities, he shows how philogynous masculinities play out among youth in Maputo, Mozambique. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Woman Hater disambiguation. Feminist theology and Sex differences in religion. Gender roles in Christianity. Complementarianism and Christian egalitarianism.

Namus and Islam and domestic violence. Scientology and abortion , Scientology and gender , Scientology and marriage , and Scientology and sex. Friedrich Nietzsche's views on women. Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories 1st ed. Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women. Misogyny in the Western Philosophical Tradition: The Blackwell dictionary of sociology: A user's guide to sociological language. Retrieved November 21, International encyclopedia of men and masculinities.

Clarendon Press Oxford Univ. Press , [4th] ed. Merriam, "a hatred of women". Random House, 2d ed. The Sydney Morning Herald.

Retrieved 15 November Archived from the original on 19 October An Introduction to Classical Athens. The Hellenistic Background of 1 Corinthians 7 , pp. Misogunia appears in the accusative case on page of Deming, as the fifth word in line 33 of his Greek text.

It is split over lines 25—26 in von Arnim. Misogyny is the first word on the page. Tieleman, Chrysippus' on Affections: Reconstruction and Interpretations , Leiden: Brill Publishers , , p. Themes from the Work of Richard Sorabji , Oxford: Clarendon Press, , Routledge philosophy guidebook to Plato and the Republic.

The World's Oldest Prejudice , pp. Avalon Publishing Group, The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender". Archived from the original on A History of Misogyny in Literature, The council on biblical manhood and womanhood.

Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 6 January Crossway, Page Marriage and family in the biblical world. Christian Men Who Hate Women: Theology of the body explained: The influence of sex and gender stereotyping in the interpretation of the Qur'an and the implications for a modernist exegesis of rights", Occasional Paper 11 in Occasional Papers Empowerment International, Popular Islam and Misogyny: A Case Study of Bangladesh.

Retrieved August 11, Ron Hubbard's woman-hatin' book chapter". Archived from the original on June 25, Feminist History of Philosophy Spring ed. Journal of the History of Philosophy. Schopenhauer, "On Women " ". An Online Journal of Philosophy. The Story of Philosophy. Beyond Good and Evil. Retrieved 23 January Nietzsche and the Feminine. University of Virginia Press. Twilight of the Idols. It is estimated that a considerable proportion of Albanians were assimilated by the time of the Turkish invasion; in other words, the Albanians had been largely marginalized in their own country.

Only during the Ottoman period did they began to settle in towns and acquire some of the characteristics of a nation rather than those of nomadic tribes. Until the nineteenth century, collective identity in Albania, as elsewhere in the Balkans, was defined primarily by religion, reinforced at the state level by the Ottoman precept of the millet: To be of the Islamic faith was to be Turkish, and to be of the Orthodox faith was to be Greek.

There was little room in either culture for the rising aspirations of Albanian nationalism during the national awakening Rilindja in the second half of the nineteenth century. During this period, nationalist leaders began to understand the divisive effects of religion among their people. The nationalist statesman Pashko Vasa — proclaimed in a widely read poem: Many graves date back to the independence movement of the early twentieth century.

The Balkan peninsula is inhabited by a multitude of ethnic groups, and relations among them have never been good. Exacerbated nationalism and age-old rivalry for territory and supremacy have always created ethnic tension.

This is especially true in regions with mixed settlement patterns, where ethnic groups are not separated by clear-cut political borders. While ethnic relations between Albanians and Greeks along their common border have improved substantially over the last decade, that cannot be said of relations between Albanians and their Slavic neighbors in the former Yugoslavia.

In Kosovo, the Albanian majority was reduced to the status of an oppressed colonial people after the Serb conquest of the region at the beginning of the twentieth century. The open conflict that broke out in was, however, not initially one between Kosovo Albanians and Kosovo Serbs but between Kosovo Albanians and a hostile Serb regime in Belgrade. Relations between Albanians and Macedonians in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia have been tense since the declaration of Macedonian independence and the downgrading of the status of Albanians there to that of a "national minority.

The traditional architecture of Albania almost disappeared during the Stalinist dictatorship of — The old towns and bazaars of Tirana and many other urban centers were demolished and replaced by socialist prestige objects or uniform housing blocks. In the late s and early s, virtually all the churches and mosques were razed or transformed beyond recognition. The Catholic cathedral of Shkodra, for instance, was transformed into a sports hall with a volleyball court, and that of Tirana into a movie theater.

While Albania has a large rural population, most families in the countryside can barely raise enough crops to feed themselves. The main thoroughfare of Tirana from Scanderbeg Square to the university was constructed by the Italians as a symbol of Italian fascism. The lack of zoning regulations led in the s to chaos in construction and the use of space, destroying the little that survived the communist regime. Food in Daily Life.

After half a century of Stalinist dictatorship, food culture is virtually nonexistent. For decades, there was little on the market beyond basic staples, and today, dire poverty has left most Albanians with little more to eat than bread, rice, yogurt, and beans.

In as much as it has survived at all, Albanian cuisine is meat-oriented. Traditional dishes, which usually are reserved for guests and special occasions such as weddings, are easier to find among Albanians living abroad. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Despite their poverty, Albanians are exceptionally generous and hospitable. A person invited to dinner will be given enough to "feed an army," even though the host may go hungry the next day.

It is not unusual for an Albanian family to spend a month's salary to feed a visitor. Meals for guests or for ceremonial occasions such as weddings usually involve copious amounts of meat, washed down with Albanian raki , an alcoholic beverage. These customs have largely died out, although some regional dishes have survived. Members of the Islamic Bektashi sect mark the end of the ten-day fasting period of matem with a special ashura pudding made of cracked wheat, sugar, dried fruit, crushed nuts, and cinnamon.

Until , Albania had a centralized socialist economy dominated by agricultural production on state farms. Food was in short supply, and despite communist propaganda, the country never attained self-sufficiency.

While Albania still has a large rural peasantry, traditionally over 60 percent of the total population, most families in the countryside can do little more than feed themselves. Some farming surplus has reached urban markets in recent years, but food imports remain essential. Land Tenure and Property. Albania is a mountainous country with an extremely high birthrate, and there is not enough farmland. Agriculture was reprivatized in the early s after the fall of the communist regime, and many properties were returned to their former owners.

Most families, however, received extremely small plots barely large enough to survive on. Property disputes are common and have been a major cause of blood feuding. Although most political parties have strategies for the further privatization of industry and nonagricultural land, many problems remain. Commercial Activities, Major Industries, and Trade.

Aside from agricultural output, Albania is a major producer of chrome. There are also significant deposits of copper and nickel and some oil. The country is still reeling from the radical transformation from a socialist to a free market economy, and commercial activity has not attained its potential.

Virtually all the major industries went bankrupt and collapsed in the early s when a free market economy was introduced. Some mines, chrome in particular, are still in production, but most have stagnated under pressure from foreign competition. Among the few sectors of the economy that are doing well is the construction industry. Domestic building materials are now widely available on the local market and increasingly on foreign markets.

The European Union is the major trading partner, with Italy, Greece, and Germany leading in imports and exports. The national trade deficit has been compensated to some extent by foreign exchange remittances from Albanian emigrants working abroad.

Under the communist regime, which called for absolute equality and the rule of a single working class, there were in fact three social castes. The ruling caste was composed of the extended families of politburo members and related communist families and clans.

The majority of the population was in the working class. The Workmen at a metallurgical plant in Elbasan, Albania. Much of the Albanian industrial sector collapsed with the introduction of a free market economy in the early s.

Many of those families were sent to the countryside into internment or internal exile and were denied access to many professions and to education for their children. This caste system broke down with the fall of the communist regime and has been replaced by a system where status is determined exclusively by wealth. The Republic of Albania is a parliamentary republic with a democratic constitution that was promulgated in Political turmoil has continued since the ousting of the authoritarian Berisha regime in , and there is little sign of consensus or cooperation between the ruling and opposition parties.

Political tension remains high. Leadership and Political Officials. The current president, Rexhep Meidani, is a former university professor from the ruling Socialist Party. Former president Sali Berisha of the Democratic Party continues to lead the opposition. Social Problems and Control. Public order broke down in as a result of a lack of political and economic planning. During the spring of , arms depots were plundered throughout the country; as a result, crime became a major problem.

Since the breakdown, there has been a substantial degree of taking the law into one's own hands. However, this is not a new phenomenon but part of Albanian tradition. For centuries, it was not the central government but Albanian customary or traditional law that governed social behavior and almost every facet of life in northern Albania.

This customary law is widely respected today. It was strictly observed by the tribes of the northern highlands and had priority over all other laws, ecclesiastical or secular.

With the help of this ancient code, the highland tribes were able to preserve their identity, autonomy, and way of life under the Ottoman Empire for five centuries. Some aspects of the Kanun may appear harsh to a modern observer. Vengeance, for instance, was accepted as the prime instrument for exacting and maintaining justice. This led to blood feuding that decimated the northern tribes in the early years of the twentieth century and that is again a major problem of social life in northern Albania.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Albania is a patriarchal society based on male predominance. Women are accorded subordinate roles. The communist Party of Labor did much to emancipate women during a revolutionary campaign in the late s and early s, but many of the gains of that social revolution have been reversed since the introduction of democracy and a free market economy. Old traditions have revived, and despite legal equality and acceptance in the workforce, women have much less representation in public life than they did under the former regime.

Marriages in Albania are socially and legally restricted to heterosexual couples. They often are arranged at an early age in the countryside, traditionally by the parents of the groom with the help of a matchmaker rather than by the couple.

Remaining unmarried is looked on as a great misfortune. In some mountain regions, the bride was stolen from her family, that is, spirited away by an armed bridegroom or by his male relatives and companions. This usually symbolic though occasionally real theft of a bride was also a common custom among the Italo-Albanians of Calabria.

In other regions, it was customary to purchase a wife. The new husband is thus free to kill his wife with the approval of her family if she proves to be disobedient. Albanian weddings are impressive festivities. They are virtually the only popular celebrations observed today and thus are taken very seriously. Whole villages and, in towns, hundreds of people may be invited to take part in a wedding banquet. The celebrations can last several days.

Traditionally, weddings take place during the full moon to ensure offspring. Monogamy was always the rule in Albania, but polygamous marriages existed up to the beginning of the twentieth century in some areas, particularly if the first wife was not able to bear a son.

Live-in concubines were not uncommon in the mountains up to World War II. Albanian women were as a rule faithful to their husbands. Since a wife was considered the property of her husband, adultery amounted to theft. Thus, cases of adultery were punished severely under traditional law. Premarital and extramarital sex was more prevalent in the northern highlands, the part of the country with the most rigid moral code.

Divorce is now a common phenomenon. In Albania's patriarchal society, women are generally placed in subordinate roles. Child Rearing and Education. Albanians have always lived in a world of extreme hardship and deprivation. Underdevelopment and a high incidence of infant mortality have been compounded by warring and blood feuding that at times decimated the male population. Reproduction, as the key to survival, therefore took on a more elementary significance among Albanians than it did among neighboring peoples.

Even today, Albanian birthrates are significantly higher than those anywhere else in Europe. As in other third world cultures, it is believed that the more children, especially male children, one raises, the more security one will have in one's old age. A childless marriage is considered a great misfortune, and a woman living without a husband and children is inconceivable. Given the extremely patriarchal nature of Albanian society, greater importance is attributed to the birth of sons than to that of daughters.

It was often the custom in the north of Albania for a woman to be wed officially only after she had given birth to her first son. In Berat, the main beam of a house was painted black at the birth of a girl as a token of the family's disappointment. Male children generally were better treated, for instance, by being better protected against the "evil eye. Albania is on the border dividing three religions: Roman Catholicism, Greek Orthodoxy, and Islam. According to the last reliable statistics on religion , among a population of 1,,, there were , 69 percent Muslims, including the Bektashi; , 21 percent Orthodox; and , 10 percent Catholics.

One can estimate today that approximately 70 percent of Albanians in the republic are of Muslim, including Bektashi, background; about 20 percent, mostly in the south, are Orthodox; and about 10 percent, mostly in the north, are Catholic. In , all religious communities were dissolved when a communist government edict banned the public practice of religion.

The law was rescinded only in December during the collapse of the regime. Despite the return of religious freedom, there seems to be more interest in the revival of Christianity and Islam among foreign missionaries and groups than there is among Albanians. Albanians have never had a national religion with which to identify as a people.

For the last century and a half, national ethnic identity has predominated over religious identity, and this is unlikely to change in the coming years in a small and struggling nation surrounded by hostile neighbors. Organized religion still plays only a marginal role in public life.

Religious fervor is extremely rare, and religious extremism is virtually unknown. The foundations of a national literature were laid in the second half of the nineteenth century with the rise of a nationalist movement striving for Albania's independence from a decaying Ottoman Empire.

The literature of this so-called Rilindja period of national awakening was characterized by romantic nationalism and provides a key to an understanding of the Albanian mentality today. The culmination of Albanian literature before World War II appears in the works of the Franciscan priest Gjergj Fishta — , once lauded as the national poet.

From to , for primarily political reasons, Fishta was ostracized from the Albanian literary world and the mention of his name was forbidden. Virtually all prewar Albanian literature was swept away by the political revolution that took place during and after World War II.

Most prewar writers and intellectuals who had not left the country by regretted their decision to stay. The persecution of intellectuals and the break with virtually all cultural traditions created a literary and cultural vacuum that lasted until the s and whose results can still be felt.

With Albania's integration into the Soviet bloc during the s, Soviet literary models were introduced and slavishly imitated. Writers were encouraged to concentrate their creative energies on specific themes, such as the partisan struggle of the "national liberation war" and the building of socialism.

Despite the constraints of socialist realism and Stalinist dictatorship, Albanian literature made much progress in the s and s. One of the best examples of creativity and originality in Albanian letters then and now is Ismail Kadare b. Kadare's talents both as a poet and as a prose writer have lost none of their innovative force over the last three decades.

His influence is still felt among the young postcommunist writers of the s, the first generation to be able to express itself freely. Journeys in Albania , High Albania , reprint , Anthology of Modern Albanian Poetry: An Elusive Eagle Soars , Studies in Modern Albanian Literature and Culture , The General of the Dead Army , Albanian-English Dictionary , Blue Guide Albania , 2nd ed. The Politics of Language in Socialist Albania , Ideo-Political Aspects , Studies on Kosova , Between Serbs and Albanians: From Anarchy to a Balkan Identity , The central Macedonian towns of Albania.

History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space The traditional architecture of Albania almost disappeared during the Stalinist dictatorship of — Food and Economy Food in Daily Life.

Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Socialization Child Rearing and Education. The Arts and Humanities Literature. Albanian Folktales and Legends , History of Albanian Literature , In the Heart of the Powder Keg , Chronicle in Stone , Broken April , The Palace of Dreams , The Anatomy of Tyranny , The Concert , The Pyramid , The File on H , The Three-Arched Bridge , A Short History , Contemporary Albanian Literature , Socialist Albania since , A Modern History , Colloquial Albanian , Also read article about Albania from Wikipedia.

I am proud to read a true story that is inherited generation by generation and not distorted by politics. The people in earth need to know the truth where they come from.

Identity is the bread that gives power and hope to be what you are. Thank-you for the informative information. It was well written and gave a realistic insight into what is Albania today. I have relatives who are from Albania and frequenty visit there, this is a very accurate depiction of albanian life. Thank-you for your hard work in bring us this important information.

I ame one of three sons of him. My email[ nrepishty ymail. More and more the Albanian history is being distorted by fanatics then on truth. This piece is being spoken by a outsider who put all that nonsence aside and based it on FACT! This makes me even prouder to be Albanian!

My many thanks to the Author. Well said , brilliant narrative history of Albanians. Would be very helpful start for individuals who want to know about Albanians. I would not agree completely when it comes to rights of women. Female factor always played great role in Albanian society. In both current governments in Albania and Kosovo there are female ministers.

I also think that the narrative needs to be updated, Kosovo proclaimed own independence and is recognized by 63 counties.

Well written by an outsider who is not part of a ballkan mambo jumbo! Although i would like to correct the author when he says that the husband had the right to kill his wife for not being obidient! That is not true unless the wife comitted addultery. And that was long time ago whwn the same customs were widley the same throughout europe in some extent. Anway well done and thankyou for the impartial article! It does not mention Scanderbeg's Serbian origins.

It mentions how Albanians are very much slavic influenced because of close contact but it failed to mention all the slavic toponyms in Albania, and in their family tribal names.

This was awesome but how big were the families and how were the elders treated. Legendary, Its extremely amazing what all this story is about. I have an albanian good friend and he a;ways talks about culture and life rules, but as an American I am I was never going to listen to him before I read this story.

Its kinnda awesome to hear that people were leaving in AC, in america we think that the population started existing only during when america was discovered by americo vespuci. It wasn't all accurate, but it did hit some points. The truth about the Albanians and were they come from will never be known. Its kinda like the Illyrians who didn't record there history and never really left a big enough mark in history.

I just thought of some thing. That just might be the link between the Albanian and the Illyrians! That for there whole history they never had the time to settle and write the things in there history cause it kept changing. Its just who they are and the way they've been doing it for thousands of years.

An so that later in history people could figure out the truth. So now pointing out some of the characteristics of those invading groups. How some even gained high military and political status. Its better to build nothing cause it can be destroy and better to survive as a race! My best friend is albanian and this really helped me uderstand his culture a little more:.

I wanted to learn about Albania so I picked it for my project in school keep up the good work!

Merriam Webster synonym for definition 1 (not definition 2, which is the broader, colloquial sense) of “literally”: “actually.” These people are not explicitly paid to think of new forms of outrage, but they are actually paid to think of new forms of outrage.. Also, are you . Consider the following: 1. Darrell Williams. In , Oklahoma State basketball player Darrell Williams (a promising talent who had left the team in several statistical categories in ) was accused of groping two white women and reaching inside their pants without their consent. Skopje, Kumanovo, and Bitola have sizable (15 to 50 percent) communities of Albanian speakers, whereas the western Macedonian centers of Tetova (Tetovo), Gostivar, and Dibra (Debar), along with the Struga area, all have an Albanian majority.