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An inquest was held by Justice Putney, and it was decided that he came to his death by drink and exposure. It appears he had been lying at the place for a day or two, and numbers passing noticed him, but perhaps thinking he was sleeping off a debauch, did not minister to his wants. Some employes of the railroad furnished him water last Friday. He was brought in and buried by the county last Saturday. Last Monday morning at Seydler place, nine miles north of Weimar , the well suddenly began caving in, and in almost an instant the unfortunate man was buried several feet beneath the mass of dirt.

The alarm was given at once and everybody in the neighborhood responded to the call for help, and although they worked like Trojans, did not succeed in uncovering the poor fellow until 1: Habescht was about 50 years old, and leaves a wife and young daughter. His remains were brought here Tuesday, and interred in the Catholic cemetery. Funeral services for Clarence F. Hadash, 62, of Weimar, were held Wednesday, May 29, from St. After schooling here and in Blinn Jr.

College, he served in the U. Marine Corps for four years, He married Alnita Otto here on September 5, Serving as pallbearers were Ed Hanzelka Jr.

Final Rite for Mrs. Hadash, whose health had been fairly good, had entered the hospital April 10 and was operated upon the following day. She suffered a stroke Monday night, living only a few hours afterward.

Born Emilie Breska Sept. She was married in to Mr. Hadash, who preceded her in death less than two years ago. She had lived near Weimar since her marriage. Hadash, all of here; a daughter, Mrs. Fred Hadash, 30, well known farmer living near Weimar, hanged himself in the barn Saturday. He was found dangling to a rope at 5: Justice Arthur Ratliff returned an Inquest verdict of suicide.

He was a son of a pioneer family there, Mr. His wife, and five children, including 6-months-old twins, survive. Michael's Catholic Cemetery ]. Michael's Catholic Church, with burial in the parish cemetery.

Hadash died Wednesday, Sept. She was married to Ferdinand Hadash, who died Dec. She was a member of St. Mary's Catholic Church in San Antonio. Surviving her are a daughter, Mrs. Ida Stirl of Cuero, Mrs. Alma Zalesky of San Antonio, Mrs. Elsie Cejka of Houston and Mrs. Martha Berger of San Antonio and Mrs.

Annie Kunz, preceded her in death. Serving as pallbearers were six grandsons, Erwin Hadash Jr. Hadash of Conroe and Charles T. Funeral services for Peter Hadash, Sr. Burial was in City Cemetery. A native of Austria, where he was born April 25, , Mr. Hadash came to America in , settling in Pennsylvania, where for a short while he worked as a coal miner.

He lived at Denver, Colorado for six years, and in moved to Schulenburg. After about a year he moved to this county. He married Emilie Breska Sept. Surviving him are his widow, Mrs. Fourteen grandchildren and two great-grandchilden also survive. Death came for R. Funeral services were held at 10 a. Hathaway, pastor of the Methodist church, officiating. Hadden was a Methodist, and a Mason for over 50 years.

Hadden was county commissioner in Precinct 1 from to , operated the Ford Motor co. One of his proudest achievements as county commissioner was his work in obtaining partial remission of state ad valorem taxes for flood control in the county. He was also commissioner when right-of-way for Highways 71 and 90 were obtained in the county.

When he became commissioner in , mules and fresnos were used in road building and maintenance,. Hadden was married to Tyla Wagenfuhr June 4, Hadden died in Last rites for Mrs. Hadden, who would have been 73 had she lived until May 2, were held at the Columbus Funeral home Monday afternoon, with Lane Denson, Episcopal seminary student of Austin, conducting. Burial was in Odd Fellows Rest cemetery , where Rev. Jordan Mann of the Methodist church officiated at the graveside.

She was born Tyla Wagenfuhr in Columbus in , on the spot where the Hadden home now stands. Hadden were married in San Antonio in and had lived in Columbus since They celebrated their Golden Wedding anniversary quietly in their home here last June 4. Besides her husband, who is commissioner of Precinct 1, Mrs. Hadden is survived by 2 sisters, Mrs. Wirtz of Columbus and Mrs. Dehnisch of Dallas, and 2 nieces. Pallbearers were Dan Hooper Jr.

Litzmann, Tanner Walker, L. Hastedt and Sam K. Marvin died Wednesday at John F. Veatch of Rock Island will officiate. Columbus Funeral Home is making the arrangements.

The child was born April 27th, at La Donna, Texas. He is survived by his parents and a brother, Melton. He came from a family of three brothers and seven sisters. After he returned home, he met the love of his life, Winnie Kamarad of New York. They married on January 22, They made their home in Columbus, where they raised three daughters.

They were blessed with six grandchildren and one great-grandchild. For over 40 years, George was involved in the cattle business and was highly respected in the cattle industry. In , he became part owner of Columbus Livestock. George always gave back to the community. He volunteered his time through the years at FFA sales, the local 4-H, and county fairs of Columbus and the surrounding communities.

As faith was very important to George, he tirelessly auctioned at numerous church picnics throughout the area. George sold his business in , giving him more time to spend with family and friends. George enjoyed fishing, hunting in South Texas, and barbeques with friends.

George loved life, his church, family, and friends. Funeral services took place Sunday, March 22 at St. Henneke Funeral Home was in charge of arrangements. News reached here Wednesday of the death of Mr. Paul Hagemann at his home in Dallas. The body was shipped here for interment, arriving on the noon train Thursday.

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McNeill of Houston, pastor of the Presbyterian church here, and the Rev. Park of Christ Episcopal church and interment was in Lakeside cemetery.

Haley served on the tire panel of the Colorado county war price and ration board, and was an elder of the Presbyterian church in Eagle Lake,. Surviving are his widow, Mrs. Haley, a son, T. Haley IV; and his mother, Mrs. Funeral services were to be held Wednesday, February 3, at 11 a. Graveside services were to follow at the Lakeside Cemetery at 3: Sympathy is extended to the family in their loss.

Funeral Services for Albert H. Halfmann of Frelsburg were held Saturday, October 28, from Sts. Peter and Paul Catholic Church in Frelsburg at He was united with the former Toni Canik June 25, , and was a retired farmer. Survivors include his wife, Mrs. Funeral services for Edward Halfmann, farmer of the Frelsburg community, were held at the family residence and later at Sts.

Peter and Paul Catholic Church Saturday, with requiem high mass at 10 a. Burial was in the Frelsburg Catholic cemetery. Halfmann suffered a stroke Dec. He was born a Frelsburg May 14, , and spent his entire life in that community.

He was married to Helen Cranek 41 years ago. Willrodt of Columbus and Mrs. Josephine Hoelscher of West Texas. Ball bearers were Louis Cranek Jr. Interment was at Sts. Father Werner Bockholt officiated. Halfman, a rancher and taxidermist, passed away about May 17 at his residence near Frelsburg where he had resided for the past 50 years.

He was 56 years of age. Funeral services for Leo R. Rosary was recited Saturday and. Sunday evening' In the funeral. Halfmann's death was attributed to. His body was found near a tractor by Fred Barnett at the Barnett and Peek sawmill shortly after noon Friday. Halfmann had gone to the mill with a tractor and trailer to load slabs. He ts survived by his 2nd wife, the former Maybell Hermsdorf; 4 daughters, Mrs.

Pallbearers were his nephews. Fred and Lawrence Hoelscher, Anton Jr. Burial was In the Catholic cemetery at Frelsburg. She was born Nov. She married Remi Halfmann on Feb. She was a homemaker and a member of Sts. Peter and Paul Catholic Church in Frelsburg. She is survived by her daughters: Regina Halfmann Zientek and husband Alois of Brenham and Evelyn Halfmann Ullmann and husband Irvin of Wharton; nine grandchildren; 14 great grandchildren; and one great-great granddaughter.

Funeral services took place Tuesday, Feb. Interment followed in Sts. Peter and Paul Catholic Cemetery in Frelsburg. He was born in Frelsburg, Nov. He was self-employed as a carpenter and farmer and was a member of Sts. He is survived by his wife; daughters and sons-in-law, Regina and Alois Zientek of Brenham and Evelyn and Irvin Ullmann of Wharton; 10 grandchildren; and 14 great-grandchildren.

Funeral services were conducted May 9 at Sts. Interment followed in the church cemetery. Cook, after an illness of several weeks. Everything that physicians, family and friends could do to stay the hand of death was done, but without avail. Wilson, Methodist pastor, officiating. At the conclusion of the services the greatest array of floral tributes perhaps ever seen in Weimar was placed upon the mound, attesting the popularity and esteem in which this good lady was held by the people of this city and section.

The active pall bearers were six of Mrs. The honorary pall bearers designated by the family were as follows: Pickens, Dan Roberdeau, A. Large numbers of mourning relatives and friends were present from many points throughout the state.

The family moved to Texas in her early girlhood, and she lived in Weimar the greater part of her life. She was married to the late John A. Hall, and is survived by one daughter, Mrs. Pickens; also by a number of nieces and nephews. Hall was truly a lovable, good woman. Until ill health beset her, she was active in church and social work, and was beloved by all who had the pleasure of her acquaintance. She ever proved a good wife, mother, neighbor and friend, and the unusually large attendance at the funeral attested the high esteem in which she was held by all.

Truly a noble, good woman has gone from among us. Again the hand of death has appeared in our midst and taken from us a precious little angel in the form of little Cloe, the youngest daughter of Mr. Hall of this place. The precious darling was sick only two or three days with congestion and breathed her last at 4: Only five summers had passed over the head of the baby girl, but during that time it had wound itself around the hearts of many of our citizens by its bright and affectionate ways, and all sypathise deeply with the greatly bereaved parents in this sad hour of deep distress.

The remains were interred in the family lot in the Odd Fellows' cemetery Wednesday morning at 10 o'clock, followed to the last resting place by a large concourse of friends and relatives, Rev. Collins of Columbus officiating. Hall was rushed to the Eagle Lake hospital but was pronounced dead on arrival. Many hearts will throb with sorrow when the above announcement is read. Few men possessed as many friends and admirers as did Mr.

He was the very soul of honor. Hall is that man," and all our people, rich and poor, high and low, white and black. Few men ever lived such an exemplary life as did this grand.

Of quiet, unassuming habits, only those who had dealings with him or who possessed his confidence realized what a depth of character, manhood, integrity and all those attributes that go to make up the true type of gentleman were possessed by John A. Charitable to a fault. He was a consistent member of the Methodist church; also a member of tile Masonic Order, Odd Fellows and United Workman, He will be buried this Saturday morning at 10 o'clock at the Odd Fellows' cemetery.

Hall was born in Christian county, Ky. He came to Texas with his parents in , first settling in Washington county thence moving to Fayette county, and from there to this communityity, where he resided almost continually with the exception of four years' absence in the service of his country as a faithful and gallant Confederate soldier.

For many years and up to the time of his decease, he was in the lumber business in this city. He leaves a heartbroken wife and one daughter.

Hall of Round Rock, and one sister, Mrs. Harrison of Flatonia, besides a large number of relatives and friends as numerous as the sands of the seashore. To the grief-stricken family. God pity and comfort them in their deep distress, is the sincere wish of all.

He was born Aug. He was a self-employed owner of LuftWerks and Scoti-Zahner. He married Tina Delgado Hall on Jan. He served in the U. Mary, Jennifer and John Hall. An Alleyton man was killed Sunday evening following a two-vehicle collision on Hwy.

Hall, 82, dead on the scene after being struck by a Dodge Dually. According to Department of Public Safety reports, Hall was pulling out of a private drive on the west side of Hwy. Department of Public Safety trooper Troy Clark said Hall pulled into the path of Curlee who was pulling a utility trailer.

Curlee, who received minor cuts and bruises, struck Hall in the driver side door. His name was t im Hall, and he was formerly the mail rider between Alleyton and Milheim. At last accounts the body had not be recovered. A little child of Mr. Frank Hall was bitten by a dog some time ago, and not much was thought of it at the time. The child became sick last week and on last Sunday night it died, with all the symptoms of hydrophobia.

This is a sad case indeed, and the bereaved parents have our sympathy. We sincerely hope that this case will cause all useless dogs to be exterminated. The ten month old child of Mr. Hall, living on the Burns place at Calhoun, died last Saturday night of pneumonia. The funeral was held Sunday afternoon, interment being made in the Lakeside cemetery. Carole Bunge Halla passed away comfortably at her home on November 2, , after a short but valiant battle with metastatic breast cancer.

She was raised in Garwood, Tx. She proceeded to receive her Bachelor and Master Degrees from St. Thomas University in Houston, Tx. Carole married Carl James Halla, Jr. She raised her two children in Houston, and during her 25 years living in the city along with earning her commercial pilot's license, became an avid philanthropist using her artistic, creative and leadership talents in many capacities including being elected and serving as President of the Houston Junior Forum in She returned to the country in where she lived on her property, Caroleta Ranch, in Weimar, Tx.

She was blessed to spend the last fifteen years of her life married to Billy Ray Emfinger, living close to her children and grandchildren, enjoying travel along with entertaining, and continuing her family business as well as artistic endeavors while still maintaining her close connections to Houston.

She was preceded in death by her grandparents, parents, first husband, numerous aunts, uncles, cousins, and two sets of in-laws. Her funeral services will be held on November 8, starting at 9: In lieu of flowers and in honor of her dedication to philanthropy, memorials can be made to her most recent non-profit interest, Turtle Wing Foundation, P. Box , Schulenburg, Tx. He was born on April 29, in Philadelipha, Pa. He retired from Halliburton after 34 years.

He was a member of American Legion post , V. A rosary will be recited at 7 pm on Tuesday at the funeral home. Services will be held on Wednesday June 19 at 10 am at St. Johns Catholic Church in Taiton with Rev. Gabriel Oduro Tawiah officiating. Burial will follow at Lehrer Cemetery in Garwood with military honors under the auspices of American Legion post Honorary pallbearers will be his grandchildren. Memorial donations in memory of Frank Hallinger Sr.

Condolences for the family may be left online at www. The body of an aged man was found on the banks of the Colorado River just north of the Southern Pacific railroad bridge at Columbus by a sheriff's posse about Sunday after the woman at whose home he was boarding had notified the officers he was missing.

The man was J. Hallmark, 70, who had been living in Columbus only two months. Justice of the Peace Earl J. Frnka returned a verdict of death due to natural causes. Fuller, the landlady, told Deputy Sheriff M. Hallmark, who often fished in, the river a short distance from her home, left about 10 am. Sunday to go fishing. When he had not returned after dark she notified the officers. The body was found on a path about feet from the water and Justice Frnka estimated he had been dead about eight hours.

Little is known of the man but he is reported to have recently visited his father, in his 90's, who lives somewhere in Arkansas.

There also were unverified reports of a brother in Houston and a son in Dallas: About a dozen men joined in the hunt, equipped with walkie-talkie radio sets borrowed from Weimar and Eagle Lake police departments. Tanner and Judge Frnka were in the group. Memorial services for Nadine Causey Halvorsen, are scheduled for 2 p. Rob Fisher and the Rev. Halvorsen passed away June 10, at the age of Nadine was born in Lissie, Texas, Jan. After attending boot camp in Hunter College, N.

After residing for some years in Austin and Houston, she moved to Tyler, in and became a member of Pollard United Methodist Church.

She became an active volunteer at the King's Storehouse Food Bank. Memorial services for Ralph E. Halvorsen, CPA, are scheduled for 1 p. Halvorsen passed away April 17, , at the age of He was born in South St. He was discharged from the service in December He graduated from the University of Texas in and spent his business career in Houston.

He was vice president and treasurer at Reed Roller Bit Co. After retiring from American General he had his own accounting practice and also served as business manager and controller for the Wortham Foundation. He retired from his practice in and moved to Tyler in In Tyler he was an active volunteer in Pollard Methodist Church. If desired, memorials may be made to Pollard United Methodist Church in Tyler, or to your favorite charity.

Death came very suddenly on the 19th to Alfonso B. Holyard[sic] at the home of his son-in-law Charles Smith, near to where he was born 67 years ago, and since resided and raised a family of good children who survive him.

On May 17, , in Columbus Mr. John Shropshire's company, which was afterwards known as Company A, Tom Green's Regiment, Sibley's Brigade, and went through the hardships of that command in its campaign to New Mexico. He went through the battle of Val Verde, Johnson's Ranch, Glorietta, Parolto and others, in which campaign he lost two step-brothers, Robert and Ashley. Another step-brother, John, died recently. Holyard[sic] returned to Texas in , was in the retaking of Galveston, Jan 1, and through the campaign in Louisiana.

The deceased leaves behind, about fourteen members of the original company to join with the family in mourning the loss of one we all loved [Interment made in Halyard Cemetery ]. The death of Miss Carrol Halyard occurred at their home, six miles north of town last Sunday evening, after an illness extending over a period of about eleven weeks.

Funeral services were held at the residence and interment made in the family cemetery. Deceased was 39 years of age and is survived by her mother, Mrs. Halyard, and one brother, Mr. George Halyard of Crockett, to whom our sympathy is extended. We deplore the death of another old and highly respected citizen in the person of Mr.

He died on Tuesday last very suddenly of heart disease. He has been a resident of this county for about forty years, and was well known in Western Texas. A large circle of relatives and friends mourn his demise.

John Halyard, a well known citizen of this section, died Sunday after a long illness, and the remains were buried in the Live Oak Cemetery Monday afternoon at 3 o'clock. Halyard had lived in Colorado county the greater part of his life, and the last few years in this immediate section. He was the father of Mrs. John Miles of the Live Oak section.

He had many friends, was a kindly, good man, and his death is sincerely regretted. Out heartfelt sympathy goes out to his bereaved relatives and friends,.

She became suddenly ill Friday of last week and was rushed to the hospital for an emergency operation. Loretta Bacon was born at Seguin on October 29, , and came with her parents to Columbus when she was a small child. There she grew to womanhood and was married to A. Halyard, son of a large plantation owner.

She was the mother of five children, four of whom, and also her husband, having preceded her in death. One son, George William Halyard of Crockett, twenty-four grandchildren, forty great grandchildren, and two great great grandchildren survive. Annie Taylor of Eagle Lake is a granddaughter. Funeral services were held from the home of her granddaughter, Mrs. Otto Miller, at 3 o'clock Thursday afternoon, interment being made in the old family cemetery [ Halyard Cemetery ] on the Halyard Plantation, beside her husband, the Columbus Methodist minister conducting the services.

Those from Eagle Lake attending the funeral were, Mrs. Walker and daughter, Mrs. Selma Falen and probably others whose names we failed to learn.

She was a Texas veteran, having immigrated to this country years before the war of , and had an interesting fund of reminiscences of that early period. Her remains were committed to earth in the o ld family Halyard burial ground last Sunday aftenoon at 3 o'clock in the presence of a large concourse of relatives and friends, the Rev. Collins, pastor of the Methoidst Church at this place, officiating. The Citizen trusts an appropriate obituary of this estimable lady will be prepared for publication..

Burial was held at the Lakeside Cemetery in Eagle Lake. He farmed and operated a dairy in our area for many years before moving to Wharton during World War II. Preceded in death by parents, his wife, the former Ada Courtney of Alleyton; a daughter, Pearl and son, Milton. Survivors include daughters, Mrs.

Graham of Sweeny, Mrs. Cordie Wallace of Boling, Mrs. Jessie Brezik of Houston and Mrs. Robie Waldon of Huntington; sons, Ivey L. Ham of Brenham, Ford E. Ham of Elkhart and Jack D. Ham of Beaumont; 29 grandchildren and numerous great grandchildren. Sam Hamburger, 80, were held yesterday Wednesday at 1 p.

Kahn of Houston officiating. Burial was in Beth Israel cemetery in Houston. Hamburger died Sunday night in Columbus hospital where she had been a patient since late December. Her husband, who has been critically ill since last fall, is still in the hospital. Born in Madisonville Nov. Jacob Shapira, who operated a hotel and served familystyle meals in Madisonville for many years. Hamburger were married there in They celebrated their Golden Wedding anniversary in New Orleans in with their son-in-law and daughter, Mr.

Robert Neiman, of Dallas. Hamburger was one of the oldest living members of the local Eastern Star chapter, several years ago receiving a year pin and a life membership. Last year, for the first annual Magnolia Homes Tour, Mr. Hamburger generously opened their home and showed their collection of cut glass, which was a highlight of the tour.

Hamburger is survived by her daughter, Mrs. Joe Berlowitz of San Antonio. Jacob Hamburger, aged 67, died at his residence early Thursday morning of cancer of the stomach, after a lingering illness which had lasted for more than a year.

He first was troubled with an ulcer, but after making trips to the Mayo brothers and to other famous physicians succeeded in having that trouble cured. The cancer developed some time ago and he has been rapidly becoming worse until it became certain several days ago that he would never recover.

The old gentleman was very patient with his suffering and was hopeful of recovering to the last. Hamburger was born at Brody in Galicia, Austria, where he lived until he attained his majority.

His relatives owned an extensive business enterprise there and Mr. Hamburger conducted branches for that firm at points in Russia. On account of Russian tariffs and trade impositions, he emigrated to America. He located in Columbus in and with his business acumen built from an humble beginning a substantial estate.

He was always keenly interested in measures for the betterment of Columbus and was a worthy citizen. He was a member of Caledonia lodge, A. Hamburger is survived by one son, Sam of Columbus and two brothers, Oscar of Eagle Lake and another who lives in the east.

Graveside rites were held in Houston Sunday in Beth Israel cemetery for Sam Hamburger, retired Columbus merchant, who died in a nursing home in Dallas early Saturday morning.

Kahn officiated and Mr. Hamburger was buried beside his wife, who died last April. Born in Europe, he came to this country with his parents as a boy and to Columbus at the age of 9.

He operated a dry goods store with his father until his father died, then continued the business until World War II, when he sold it and retired. Hamburger had been ill more than a year and had been unconscious since last fall.

His body was brought to Columbus funeral home, where it remained until it was taken to Houston. He is survived by a daughter, Mrs.

Seymour, Ellis Miller, W. Miekow and Hollis Massey, all of Columbus and H. Frady, a brother-in-law, of Yoakum. Others going from Columbus to the services were Mesdames J. Charles Klein and Mr. In the death of Arthur Hamilton the community have not only lost a public spirited member, but the poor a benefactor, and the sorrowing a sympathizing friend.

His example of patience is a light to others, and his kindliness of heart, unmarred by any bitterness of spirit, even in the midst of bodily torture, was truly remarkable. Though dying he yet lives in the hearts of many. And to her who so tenderly watched and nursed him comes the blessed consolation [Interment in Odd Fellows Rest ].

Though vanished I am yet with thee, beloved, For souls can never die. Thy love which proved My solace here on earth, still dwells with me, And oh, tenfold my love returns to thee, Then grieve not that thou hast me no more Since love grows perfect only on the Eternal Shore. Crafton of North Austin Baptist church officiated. Harry Carter was organist and Mrs.

Billy Fisher was soloist. Burial was in the Willms family plot in Masonic cemetery at Eagle Lake. Hamilton was treated for short time at St. Anderson clinic in Houston. He was a masonry contractor. He graduated from Austin high school and attended the University of Texas for 3 years.

He served in the army from to His wife was unable to attend the services, since she had given birth, only last Thursday, to a son, Richard, whom Mr. Hamilton had never seen. Other survivors are a son Mark, 4 years; a son, Michael 9, and daughter, Holly, 7, by another marriage; his mother; his father, O. Hamilton, and a brother, Mertin W. Pallbearers were his first cousins, F. Willms, Billy Willms, J.

Willis, and his best friend, Bob Leatherwood. She grew up in Columbus and lived most of her adult life in San Antonio. She was preceded in death by her husband, W. Bob Hamilton; brothers, Earnest C. Kearney and Charles W. She is survived by her son, William B. Funeral services were Sunday, March 14, and interment followed at the Oddfellows Cemetery in Columbus.

In lieu of flowers, gifts may be made in her name to Sombrillo Nursing Facility at Sombrillo Ct. She was born in Rock Island Sept. She was a retired schoolteacher from Friendship Independent School District in Wolfforth where she served for 40 years and was a member of the Order of the Eastern Star in Columbus. She is survived by daughter and son-in-law, Helen C.

Funeral services were conducted Feb. Interment followed at Myrtle Cemetery in Rock Island. On August 2, , he married Juanita Adams. He had been a residnt of Columbus since Survivors include his wife of Columbus; daughter, Helen C.

Funeral services were held Saturday, October 5, at 2 p. Interment followed in Myrtle Cemetery in Rock Island. Henneke Funeral Home of Columbus was in charge of arrangements. The remains were buried Monday afternoon. Died, at the residence of her son-in-law, W. Chumney, in Colorado county, Texas, August 17, , of dropsy, Mrs.

Hamlin, aged 66 years, 8 months and 4 days. The subject of this notice was born in Lunenburg county, Virginia, where she was raised and educated.

Being possesed[sic] of remarkable beauty and attractiveness, she was married young, and took upon herself the duties of wife and mother, in which capacity she was exceedingly happy for a time, there never having been a more devoted wife and mother; but alas! The storm of adversity shattered her fabric of happiness. So frequent, so heavy were the shocks that it is no wonder she, for the remainder of her days, lay stunned among ruins, seeing the society of only a few friends, by whom she was dearly loved, and devoting her remaining strength to caring for her grand-children, whom she almost idolized, and thought their every wish must be gratified.

She was fully aware of her situation for several months, and expressed a willingness to go, yet at the last she would each succeeding morning wish to be spared to see another that she might have the pleasure of seeing the bright faces and hearing the sweet voices of her three little grandchildren.

Services for Allen L. Raymond Cox and Father Tim Kosler officiated. He died on November He married Helen Kahlden Hammack on November 9, He was a superintendent for Ideal Basic Industries, and was a resident of Columbus for the past 25 years.

Hammack, Tyler, James Hammack, Bellville; and two grandchildren. Schindler and Ricky Mikulenka. The man named Pierce Hammond, who has recently removed to Lissie from Missouri and was working on the rice farm of J.

Everitt, who was accidentally shot last night while attempting to carry the body of Marshal W. She was born on Sept. A retired elementary school teacher, she taught in the Garwood and Columbus Independent School Districts. Leeann Tarpley and Jim Shaw. Funeral services will take place on Thursday, Dec. Lee Hammons, 66, died December 18 at M. Anderson Hospital in Houston. He was born August 7, in Courtney, Texas. He was a retired City Building code inspector and Fire Marshall for City of Columbus and from refrigeration and electrical business.

Services were held Thursday, December 21 at 2 p. Survivors are his wife Ethel Burford Hammons of Columbus, daughters: McDuffy, Owen Mehrens, L. Shilling and Joe Duncan. She was born in Columbus Nov. She was a homemaker, wife and grandmother. She loved to travel, garden, fish and prepare treats for her family and friends. She was an active member of St. Funeral services were conducted Aug.

Anthony Catholic Cemetery ]. Memorial contributions may be made to Hospice Support, P. Anthony's Altar Society, Bowie St. Antonia Hanak, who died Tuesday at 4 p.

Anthony's Catholic church at 9 a. Emmett Kolodzie, pastor of St. Anthony's, conducted the services for the life-long resident of Columbus, Burial in Odd Fellows Rest. Born at Ellinger in , she was a daughter of Martin and Josephine Becica. She would have been 79 on April Her husband, Joe Hanak, died about Hanak is survived by two daughter, Miss Frances Hanak and Mrs. Philomena Dolezal and one brother, Frank Becica. Monday morning in St. Hanak, 68, who died in Columbus hospital at 4 a.

Kraus officiated and burial was in Odd Fellows Rest cemetery. Columbus Funeral home was in charge. A rosary was recited in the funeral home Sunday evening. Hanak had suffered with a heart ailment for many years and had been in bed at home for several months. He was taken to the hospital Dec. His birth date was Nov. His home is on rocky Hill road, southwest of Columbus. Survivors include his widow; a daughter, Mrs. Pallbearers were Sam K. Fowler, Ellis Miller, W. Struss and Carl Morgan. Lena Hanak, 34, a resident of Columbus, died Saturday morning in a hospital here.

The body was sent to Columbus Saturday afternoon for funeral services and interment. Survivors are the husband, Joe Hanak, of Columbus, two brothers and one sister. Requiem Mass was said Monday at 7: Anthony's Catholic Church, with The Rev. Rosary was recited Saturday at 8: He was born in Fayette County Oct. In he was married to Miss Rosie Barta. He was engaged in farming and ranching and also worked at the local gravel pit.

Survivors are his wife, Mrs. Rosie Hanak of Glidden; 2 daughters, and their husbands, Mr. Eugene Frances Pear of Columbus and Mr. One brother, Joe, preceded him in death. Burial was at Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery. She married Joe J. Hanak on October 5, She has lived in Columbus 45 years, as a housewife. Survivors include one daughter; Mrs. Pallbearers were Frank Wick, Jr.

Funeral services were held at 2 p. The funeral arrangements were under the direction of Henneke Funeral Home. Hanak was buried at St. Survivors include two daughters, Mrs. Kirby Cele Etheridge of Houston; Mrs. Fannie Pekar and son-in-law, Gene of Columbus. Three sons, Joe E. Hanak and daughter-in-law, Aleen of Columbus; James L. Wilbert Martin of Columbus; Mrs.

Herbert Sternadel of Weimar; and Mrs. Mike Pokluda of Columbus. Bob Barta of West Columbia, Texas. Sixteen grandchildren and ten great-grandchildren. The cause was lung cancer. A woman of enormous character, Chris was known for her openness and warmth, her big heart and thoughtfulness.

She was the quintessential good egg. She was also a fashion maven. Always impeccably turned out, she was a fan of most retail outlets, a shopper extraordinaire who shared her fashion discoveries and acumen with all. Sales staff at Neiman-Marcus knew her by name. Her closet was an homage to black slacks and crisp white shirts. Chris had a devilish sense of humor and loved a salty joke or well-aimed zinger. Birthday cards from her usually contained both.

She was a nut for Halloween and an avid practitioner of both tricks and treats. She married Thomas Hancher in and moved to Columbus where she raised her family and pursued a career in healthcare. Chris began her career as a charge nurse at Columbus Community Hospital, rising to the position of Director of Home Health Agency there in She served for many years on the board of the Columbus Public Library and was a longstanding member of the Pilot Club. Of all her many accomplishments, she took the greatest pride in her family.

John Alden Hancher, 90, died Saturday, Dec. He was 90 years old at the time of his death. Hancher was born on Jan. He was admitted to the Texas State Bar that same year. He was stationed in England as a pilot with the R. He transferred to the U. There he flew B Bombers on missions over France and Germany. She preceded him in death on Sept. Hancher practiced law in Columbus from mid until shortly before his death.

He served as Colorado County judge from through He was a member of the Colorado County Bar Association and served as their president in the s. He served as the Veterans Service Officer for over 50 years. He is survived by his only son, Thomas Beattie Hancher M. Funeral services were held Wednesday, Jan. Box , Columbus, TX Funeral services were held in First Baptist church Saturday afternoon for Mrs. John Hancher, who died Thursday night in Columbus hospital.

She had been ill with cancer since last November, when she underwent surgery in Hermann hospital in Houston. She had been in Columbus hospital several months. Faryar Patterson, pastor of First Baptist church; the Rev. Logan Cummins of Austin and the Rev. Andrew Pate of Houston officiated. Hancher moved to Columbus in , after both had been discharged from the United States Forces, with service overseas. Born in Watertown, N. Hancher was the former Louise Beattie, daughter of Roswell T.

Upon graduation from school in Watertown, she enrolled in nurse's training in the Rochester General hospital in Rochester, N. In , when she graduated as a registered nurse, she joined a group of doctors and nurses from the hospital to form the 19th General Hospital Unit, serving in England and France in World War II. Hancher met in London at a restaurant where they had gone with mutual friends.

They were married in Malvern, county of Worchester, April 1, He returned to this county in March, , and she the following July. After moving to Columbus, Mr. Hancher began practicing as an attorney.

He served as county judge for several years. Hancher's main interest, outside her family, was her work with the Baptist church and her missionary circle. Besides her husband, she is survived by a year-old son, Tom, senior at pre-medical school at the University of Texas, her mother of Watertown, 2 sisters, Mrs. Ruth Weber of Watertown and Mrs. Christine Donoghue of Boston, Mass. Her father and a brother, Roswell T.

Her mother was at her bedside here from last December until about 3 weeks ago. Here for the services were her sister-in-law, Mrs. Pallbearers were Tyler T. Clark, Hollis Massey, J.

A devoted wife, loving mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, treasured friend and devout Christian, she was cherished and beloved by her family and friends, and a blessing to all who knew her. Hand, who preceded her in death in They lived in Houston from , and then retired to Columbus. She was a nurse for many years and a member of West Oaks Church of Christ.

Funeral services were conducted on Saturday, Dec. Interment followed in the Masonic Cemetery in Weimar. Box , Columbus, Texas ; or a charity of your choice. Funeral services were held here Friday, Sept. The funeral was under direction of the Shatto Funeral Home of Columbus. The Mercury joins many friends in extending sincere condolence to the parents and relatives in their bereavement.

Graveside services for Mrs. Hanks died Thursday afternoon, Dec 16, at her home after a heart attack. She was born in Weimar May 8, , the daughter of George Jr.

Hanks is survived by two daughters, Mrs. Mary Sue Listerman and Mrs. Another brother, Kenneth, preceded her in death in l. Bill grew up in Eagle Lake. He subsequently spent one year on a postdoctoral fellowship in Zurich, Switzerland where he met and married Ursula. During that year his daughter Michele was born. He was a professor of biology and human genetics at the University of Utah, where he was involved in research and teaching. He was a popular and dedicated teacher and received the University of Utah's Outstanding Teaching Award.

After 20 years of teaching he returned to being a student and earned a Master's Degree in Social Work. While continuing his teaching at the U of U he accepted a position at the Division of Human Services with the State of Utah during which time he served on National Committees for developmental disabilities. At 62 he retired, bought an RV and traveled coast to coast. Some of his favorite moments were spent watching the sunsets in San Carlos, Mexico. There was a celebration of his life at his home, 3rd Ave.

All friends were welcome. In lieu of flowers please send donations to The Haven, E. We are indeed sorry to note the death of the infant daughter of Mr. The baby, aged four months, after a short illness died at Marion Friday, and was brought to this city Saturday and interred in the Catholic cemetery by the side of its baby brother. The funeral took place from the train and after suitable ceremonies at the church by Rev.

Father Lagledger, the body of the pure little innocent was laid to rest while its spirit winged its flight to where the angels dwell. The attendance at the funeral was large, and this entire community sympathizes with the bereaved parents in their great loss. Words are inadequate to express our thanks to the numerous citizens of Weimar who extended to us so many favors and kind attentions during the recent illness of our infant son, which resulted in death.

Though we are comparative strangers here, having resided here but a short time, we received all the assistance that one could hope for even in a community where he had been born and reared. When affliction comes is the time above all others for a full appreciation of neighborly kindness.

We feel that this card is but a weak expression of our gratitude. It is with feelings of deep sorrow that we note the death of little Willie, infant son of Mr. The little fellow was taken suddenly the Saturday night before with congestion, and in a few hours was ushered where the angels dwell.

The remains were interred in the Catholic cemetery of this place, Rev. Father Lagleder of Dubina officiating. On March 8, , he married Audrey Ann Zapalac. Hanna, who had resided in Richwood for the past 18 years, was a chemist for Dow Chemical C. Funeral services were held Aug. Robert Schlortt and Ed Springs officiating. Funeral services were followed by cremation.

Hannah died June 26, at Born April 14, , in Weimar, she was a daughter of Robert H. He died November 18, , while they were living in Fort Worth. On October 2, , at Boulder, she was married to Leslie B. Hannah, who died September 20, Buddy Yoder of Weimar. Funeral services for Ed Hanzelka Sr. Michael's church at 9: Interment will be in St. Rosary will be recited at 8 o'clock Thursday night. US intelligence documents declassified in the s contained further evidence implicating Marcos, provided by a CIA mole within the Philippine army.

Another false flag attack took place with the attempted assassination of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile in President Nixon approved Marcos' martial law initiative immediately afterwards. It is easier perhaps and more comfortable to look back to the solace of a familiar and mediocre past.

But the times are too grave and the stakes too high for us to permit the customary concessions to traditional democratic processes. Martial Law was put on vote in July in the Philippine Martial Law referendum, and was marred with controversy [39] [40] resulting to A constitutional convention , which had been called for in to replace the Commonwealth era Constitution , continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law.

The new constitution went into effect in early , changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond After putting in force amendments to the constitution, legislative action, and securing his sweeping powers and with the Batasan, his supposed successor body to the Congress, under his control, President Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, However, the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus continued in the autonomous regions of Western Mindanao and Central Mindanao.

The opposition dubbed the lifting of martial law as a mere "face lifting" as a precondition to the visit of Pope John Paul II.

He used the years of martial law to implement this vision. According to Marcos's book Notes on the New Society , it was a movement urging the poor and the privileged to work as one for the common goals of society and to achieve the liberation of the Filipino people through self-realization.

Economic reforms suddenly became possible under martial law. The powerful opponents of reform were silenced and the organized opposition was also quilted. In the past, it took enormous wrangling and preliminary stage-managing of political forces before a piece of economic reform legislation could even pass through Congress.

Now it was possible to have the needed changes undertaken through presidential decree. Marcos wanted to deliver major changes in an economic policy that the government had tried to propose earlier. The enormous shift in the mood of the nation showed from within the government after martial law was imposed. The testimonies of officials of private chambers of commerce and of private businessmen dictated enormous support for what was happening.

At least, the objectives of the development were now being achieved During his martial law regime, Marcos confiscated and appropriated by force and duress many businesses and institutions, both private and public, and redistributed them to his cronies and close personal friends.

Two of these friends were Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco Jr. These associates of Marcos then used these as fronts to launder proceeds from institutionalized graft and corruption in the different national governmental agencies as " crony capitalism " for personal benefit.

Graft and corruption via bribery, racketeering , and embezzlement became more prevalent during this era. Marcos also silenced the free press, making the press of the state propaganda the only legal one, which was a common practice for governments around the world that sought to fight communism.

By , the armed forces had quadrupled and over 60, Filipinos had been arrested for political reasons. In , Vice President George H. Bush praised Marcos for his "adherence to democratic principles and to the democratic processes". Marcos and his close Rolex 12 associates like Juan Ponce Enrile used their powers to settle scores against old rivals such as the Lopezes who were always opposed to the Marcos administration.

Enrile and the Lopezes Eugenio Lopez Sr. Leading opponents such as Senators Benigno Aquino Jr. This practice considerably alienated the support of the old social and economic elite and the media, who criticized the Marcos administration endlessly.

At this point, Marcos controlled both the oligarchy and the oligopoly. Between and , Marcos increased the size of the Philippine military from 65, to , personnel, in response to the fall of South Vietnam to the communists and the growing tide of communism in South East Asia. Military officers were placed on the boards of a variety of media corporations, public utilities, development projects, and other private corporations, most of whom were highly educated and well-trained graduates of the Philippine Military Academy.

At the same time, Marcos made efforts to foster the growth of a domestic weapons manufacturing industry and heavily increased military spending.

From the declaration of martial law in until the U. In a U. Senate report it was stated that U. In June , two anti-Marcos labor activists were assassinated outside of a union hall in Seattle. Many human rights abuses were attributed to the Philippine Constabulary which was then headed by future president Fidel Ramos. The Marcos regime instituted a mandatory youth organization, known as the Kabataang Barangay , which was led by Marcos's eldest daughter Imee.

Presidential Decree , enacted in April , required that all youths aged 15 to 18 be sent to remote rural camps and do volunteer work. Marcos recognized the need to established a peaceful relationship with China. In his State of the Nation Address, he said: We, in Asia must strive toward a modus vivendi with Red China.

I reiterate this need, which is becoming more urgent each day. Before long, Communist China will have increased its striking power a thousand fold with a sophisticated delivery system for its nuclear weapons.

We must prepare for that day. We must prepare to coexist peaceably with Communist China. Prior to , the Philippine government maintained a close relationship with the Kuomintang -ruled Chinese government which fled to Taiwan Republic of China , despite the Chinese Communist Victory in , and saw Communist China People's Republic of China as a security threat due to China's financial and military support of Communist rebels in the country.

The Washington Post in an interview with former Philippine Communist Party Officials, revealed that, "they local communist party officials wound up languishing in China for 10 years as unwilling "guests" of the Chinese government, feuding bitterly among themselves and with the party leadership in the Philippines". The Philippine parliamentary election, was held on April 7, for the election of the of the regional representatives to the Interim Batasang Pambansa the nation's first parliament.

All of the party's candidates, including Ninoy, lost in the election. In , the position returned when Ferdinand Marcos became Prime Minister. Based on Article 9 of the constitution, it had broad executive powers that would be typical of modern prime ministers in other countries. The position was the official head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

All of the previous powers of the President from the Constitution were transferred to the newly restored office of Prime Minister. Upon his re-election to the Presidency in , Marcos was succeeded as Prime Minister by an American-educated leader and Wharton graduate, Cesar Virata , who was elected as an Assemblyman Member of the Parliament from Cavite in We love your adherence to democratic principles and to the democratic process, and we will not leave you in isolation.

On June 16, , six months after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. President Marcos ran and won a massive victory over the other candidates. The group was able to return to urban areas and form relationships with legal opposition organizations, and became increasingly successful in attacks against the government throughout the country.

On August 21, , opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. He had returned to the Philippines after three years in exile in the United States, where he had a heart bypass operation to save his life after Marcos allowed him to leave the Philippines to seek medical care. Victor Corpuz, were sentenced to death by a military commission on charges of murder, illegal possession of firearms and subversion.

A few months before his assassination, Ninoy had decided to return to the Philippines after his research fellowship from Harvard University had finished. The opposition blamed Marcos directly for the assassination while others blamed the military and his wife, Imelda. Popular speculation pointed to three suspects; the first was Marcos himself through his trusted military chief Fabian Ver; the second theory pointed to his wife Imelda who had her own burning ambition now that her ailing husband seemed to be getting weaker, and the third theory was that Danding Cojuangco planned the assassination because of his own political ambitions.

Martinez also alleged only he and Galman knew of the assassination, and that Galman was the actual shooter, which is not corroborated by other evidence of the case. In August , 56 Assemblymen signed a resolution calling for the impeachment of President Marcos for alleged diversion of U. The Assembly also included in the complaint the misuse and misapplication of funds "for the construction of the Manila Film Center , where X-rated and pornographic films [ citation needed ] are exhibited, contrary to public morals and Filipino customs and traditions.

During his third term, Marcos's health deteriorated rapidly due to kidney ailments, as a complication of a chronic autoimmune disease lupus erythematosus. He had a kidney transplant in August , and when his body rejected the first kidney transplant, he had a second transplant in November Police said he was kidnapped and slain by communist rebels. Marcos dismissed speculations of his ailing health as he used to be an avid golfer and fitness buff who liked showing off his physique.

President Ronald Reagan started distancing himself from the Marcos regime that he and previous American presidents had strongly supported even after Marcos declared martial law. The United States, which had provided hundreds of millions of dollars in aid, was crucial in buttressing Marcos's rule over the years, [] although during the Carter administration the relationship with the U. In late , in the face of escalating public discontent and under pressure from foreign allies, Marcos called a " snap election " with more than a year left in his term.

He selected Arturo Tolentino as his running mate. The opposition to Marcos united behind two American-educated leaders, Aquino's widow, Corazon , and her running mate, Salvador Laurel. It was during this time that Marcos's World War II medals for fighting the Japanese Occupation was first questioned by the foreign press. During a campaign in Manila's Tondo district, Marcos retorted: You who are here in Tondo and fought under me and who were part of my guerrilla organization—you answer them, these crazy individuals, especially the foreign press.

Our opponents say Marcos was not a real guerrilla. These people who were collaborating with the enemy when we were fighting the enemy. Now they have the nerve to question my war record. I will not pay any attention to their accusation. Marcos was referring to both presidential candidate Corazon Aquino's father-in-law Benigno Aquino Sr.

Both were arrested and charged for treason after the war. The elections were held on February 7, Cheating was reported on both sides. Two Namfrel volunteers were hanged in Ilocos. The Ilocano votes were enough to overwhelm Cory's lead in Metro Manila and other places.

RAM, led by Lt. The failed election process gave a decisive boost to the " People Power movement. At the height of the revolution, Juan Ponce Enrile revealed that a purported and well-publicized ambush attempt against him years earlier was in fact faked, in order for Marcos to have a pretext for imposing martial law. However, Marcos never ceased to maintain that he was the duly elected and proclaimed president of the Philippines for a fourth term, but unfairly and illegally deprived of his right to serve it.

On February 25, , rival presidential inaugurations were held, [] but as Aquino supporters overran parts of Manila and seized state broadcaster PTV-4 , Marcos was forced to flee. Laxalt advised him to "cut and cut cleanly", to which Marcos expressed his disappointment after a short pause.

As per the official page US Customs record, the two C transport planes that carried the Marcos family and their closest allies had 23 wooden crates; 12 suitcases and bags, and various boxes, whose contents included enough clothes to fill 67 racks; pieces of jewelry; 24 gold bricks, inscribed "To my husband on our 24th anniversary"; and more than 27m Philippine pesos in freshly printed notes.

The jewelry included 70 pairs of jewel-studded cufflinks; an ivory statue of the infant Jesus with a silver mantle and a diamond necklace. The Catholic hierarchy and Manila's middle class were crucial to the success of the massive crusade, but only within Metro Manila because no mass demonstrations or protests against Marcos occurred in the provinces and islands of Visayas and Mindanao.

More than a year after the People Power Revolution, it was revealed to the United States House Foreign Affairs subcommittee in that Marcos held an intention to fly back to the Philippines and overthrow the Aquino government. Two Americans, namely attorney Richard Hirschfeld and business consultant Robert Chastain, both of whom posed as arms dealers, gained knowledge of a plot by gaining Marcos' trust and secretly tape recorded their conversations with the ousted leader. According to Hirschfeld, he was first invited by Marcos to a party held at the latter's family residence in Oahu, Hawaii.

After hearing that one of Hirschfeld's clients was Saudi Sheikh Mohammad Fassi, Marcos' interest was piqued because he had done business with Saudis in the past. A few weeks later, Marcos asked for help with securing a passport from another country, in order to travel back to the Philippines while bypassing travel restrictions imposed by the Philippines and United States governments.

Marcos had thought of being flown to his hometown in Ilocos Norte, greeted by his loyal supporters, and initiating a plot to kidnap Corazon Aquino. Learning of this plan, Hirschfeld contacted the US Department of Justice, and was asked for further evidence. This information eventually reached President Ronald Reagan, who placed Marcos under "island arrest", further limiting his movement. In response, the Aquino government dismissed Marcos' statements as being a mere propaganda ploy.

However, Marcos's offer was rebuffed by the Aquino government. Marcos died in Honolulu on the morning of September 28, , of kidney, heart, and lung ailments. Marcos was interred in a private mausoleum at Byodo-In Temple on the island of Oahu where his remains were visited daily by the Marcos family, political allies and friends. The Aquino government refused to allow Marcos's body to be brought back to the Philippines.

The body was only brought back to the Philippines four years after Marcos's death during the term of President Fidel Ramos. From to , his remains were interred inside a refrigerated crypt in Ilocos Norte , where his son, Ferdinand Jr. A large bust of Ferdinand Marcos inspired by Mount Rushmore was commissioned by the tourism minister, Jose Aspiras , and carved into a hillside in Benguet.

It was subsequently destroyed; suspects included left-wing activists, members of a local tribe who had been displaced by construction of the monument, and looters hunting for the legendary Yamashita treasure. Opinion on his burial remains split: On November 18, , the remains of Marcos were buried at the Heroes' Cemetery despite opposition from various groups. The burial came as unexpected to many, as the Supreme Court's ruling still allowed 15 days for the opposition to file a motion for reconsideration.

On the morning of November 18, using Philippine Armed Forces choppers, his family and their supporters flew his remains from Ilocos to Manila for a private burial. Various protest groups formed immediately upon news of the burial. Among those who gathered to opposed the burial were a group of youths. The League of Filipino Students described the transfer of Marcos remains for the eventually successful burial the former president as being done like "a thief in the night. The Kabataan Partylist condemn the burial labeling it as a "grave travesty" and as " galawang Hokage " lit.

Hokage move; Hokage is a high-ranked ninja in the Naruto anime franchise. Ferdinand Marcos was married to Imelda Romualdez , on May 1, and the marriage produced three children: His fourth child, Aimee Marcos born , is adopted.

To help finance a number of economic development projects, the Marcos government borrowed large amounts of money from international lenders. As a former colony of the United States, the Philippines was heavily reliant on the American economy to purchase agricultural goods such as sugar, [] tobacco, coconut, bananas, and pineapple [] [] and US corporations prospered. Foreign capital was invited to invest in certain industrial projects.

They were offered incentives, including tax exemption privileges and the privilege of bringing out their profits in foreign currencies. One of the most important economic programs in the s was the Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran Movement for Livelihood and Progress.

This program was started in September It aimed to promote the economic development of the barangays by encouraging its residents to engage in their own livelihood projects.

The government's efforts resulted in the increase of the nation's economic growth rate to an average of six percent or seven percent from to The Philippine economy, heavily reliant on exports to the United States, suffered a great decline after the Aquino assassination in August because Filipino business and political leaders who studied in Harvard, Yale, and other US universities began lobbying American and foreign firms to discourage them from investing in the Philippines.

This was taking place at the same time that China was beginning to accept free-market capitalism and American businesses were jockeying to establish manufacturing plants in China. The political troubles of the Philippines hindered the entry of foreign investments, and foreign banks stopped granting loans to the Philippine government.

In an attempt to launch a national economic recovery program and despite his growing isolation from American businesses, Marcos negotiated with foreign creditors including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development , World Bank , and the International Monetary Fund IMF , for a restructuring of the country's foreign debts — to give the Philippines more time to pay the loans. Marcos ordered a cut in government expenditures and used a portion of the savings to finance the Sariling Sikap Self-Reliance , a livelihood program he established in However, the economy continued to shrink despite the government's recovery efforts due to a number of reasons.

Most of the so-called government development programs failed to materialize. Government funds were often siphoned off by Marcos or his cronies. American investors were discouraged by the Filipino economic elite who were against the corruption that by now had become endemic in the Marcos regime.

The unemployment rate increased from 6. Considering the severe — recession, the Philippine economy annual growth rate from to of 3. It was created to engage in collating, developing and analyzing credit information on individuals, institutions, business entities and other business concerns.

It aims to develop and undertake the continuing exchange of credit data within its members and subscribers and to provide an impartial source of credit information for debtors, creditors and the public. In , Credit Information Bureau, Inc. CIBI is a provider of information and intelligence for business, credit and individuals. Marcos himself diverted large sums of government money to his party's campaign funds.

Marcos's critics charged that policies have become debt-driven with rampant corruption and plunder of public funds by Marcos and his cronies. This held the country under a debt-servicing crisis which is expected to be fixed by only Critics have pointed out an elusive state of the country's development as the period is marred by a sharp devaluing of the Philippine Peso from 3.

The overall economy experienced a slower growth GDP per capita, lower wage conditions and higher unemployment especially towards the end of Marcos's term after the — recession. After declaring martial law in , Marcos promised to implement agrarian reforms. However, the land reforms served largely to undermine Marcos's landholder opponents, not to lessen inequality in the countryside, [] and encouraged conversion to cash tenancy and greater reliance on farm workers.

By the early s, forestry collapsed because most of the Philippines' accessible forests had been depleted—of the 12 million hectares of forestland, about 7 million had been left barren. Despite claims made by the book that land reforms served largely to undermine Marcos's landholder opponents, Marcos's government did not distribute to small farmers his political rival Ninoy Aquino's family's 6, hectare Hacienda Luisita plantation, the biggest in the country. While this resulted in annual rice production in the Philippines increasing from 3.

This and other related reforms resulted in high profits for transnational corporations, but were generally harmful to small, peasant farmers who were often pushed into poverty. Victims would simply be rounded up with no arrest warrant nor reading of prisoners' rights and kept indefinitely locked up with no charges filed against them.

A Amnesty International report had listed 88 government torturers, including members of the Philippine Constabulary and the Philippine Army, which was respectively under the direct control of Major General Fidel V.

Rodolfo Aguinaldo, [20] [] credited with capturing most of the Communist Party leaders including Jose Ma. Task Force Detainees of the Philippines has recorded: Historian Alfred McCoy gives a figure of 3, recorded extrajudicial killings by the military from to , 35, tortured and 70, incarcerated. In addition to these, up to 10, Moro Muslims were killed in massacres by the Philippine Army , Philippine Constabulary , and the Ilaga pro-government paramilitary group.

Victims were often taken to military "Safehouses", [] a euphemism for hidden places of torture, [] often blindfolded. They are usually covered with high walls. One would usually detect [safehouses] through the traffic of motorcycles and cars, going in and out of the house at irregular hours. Burly men, armed with pistols tucked in their waists or in clutch bags, usually drive these vehicles.

Various forms of torture were used by the military, and these forms of torture were usually combined with each other. Physical torture was also often inflicted upon victims. Aside from deadly weapons, implements of torture included water, pliers, thumb tacks, ballpoint pens, and flat irons.

Physical torture also took the forms of:. Summary executions, [] with often mutilated bodies, sometimes bearing signs of torture, recovered. Anyone could be salvaged - Communist rebels, suspects, innocent civilians and priests included.

TFDP documented 1, "salvage" cases from to alone: Victims included year-old Luis Manuel "Boyet" Mijares tortured brutally, with burn marks, all his nails pulled and removed, 33 ice pick wounds around his body, [] skull bashed in, eyeballs gouged out, genitals mutilated, [] then dropped from a helicopter , [] Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila student Liliosa Hilao , [] Archimedes Trajano and Juan Escandor.

Enforced disappearances, also known "desaparecidos" or "the disappeared"—people who suddenly went missing, sometimes without a trace and with bodies never recovered. While the numbers of political detainees went down, the number of people killed rose and spiked in , the year Martial Law was officially lifted by Marcos according to Task Force Detainees of the Philippines. According to Senator Jose Diokno , "As torture cases declined, a more terrible tactic emerged; unofficial executions"—suspected dissidents were simply arrested and vanished.

It is hard to judge the full extent of massacres and atrocities which happened during the Marcos regime due to a heavily censored press at the time. The Marcos regime had started to kill hundreds of Moros even before the imposition of Martial Law in Root Causes and Prospects for Peace , a doctoral dissertation by Marjanie Salic Macasalong, the number of Moro victims killed by the Army , Philippine Constabulary , and the Ilaga a notorious government-sanctioned [] terrorist cult known for cannibalism and land grabbing that served as members of the CHDF [] reached as high as 10, lives.

On the stories of human rights abuses during the Marcos administration, Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. Among the sources of the Marcos wealth are alleged to be diverted foreign economic aid, US Government military aid including huge discretionary funds at Marcos disposal as a "reward" for sending some Filipino troops to Vietnam and kickbacks from public works contracts over a 2-decades-long rule. In Imelda Marcos, his widow, was acquitted of charges that she raided the Philippine's treasury and invested the money in the United States by a U.

In , Vilma Bautista, the former secretary of Imelda Marcos was sentenced to prison for conspiring to sell a Monet , Sisley and other masterpiece artworks belonging to the Republic of the Philippines for tens of millions of dollars. On September 3, , President Rodrigo Duterte said the family of the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos is "ready to return" their wealth to the government, possibly through a settlement.

Marcos and his wife, Imelda, were jointly credited in by Guinness World Records with the largest-ever theft from a government: Marcos's government built widely publicized infrastructure projects and monuments using foreign currency loans [] and at great taxpayer cost.

Sicat, "a study of infrastructure construction by various presidents shows that Marcos was the president who made the largest infrastructure investment. This is not because he was the longest-serving leader of the country alone.

On a per-year basis, he led all the presidents. Only Fidel Ramos had bested him in road building for a period of one year". To help transform the country's agricultural-based economy to a Newly industrialized country , [] he spearheaded the development of 11 heavy industrialization projects [] including steel, petrochemical, [] cement, pulp and paper mill, and copper smelter. Likewise, the country crafted a large number of decrees, laws, and edicts during Marcos's term. To put this into context, only 14, 12, and 11 laws were passed in , and , respectively.

Marcos left a mixed legacy for future generations. On one hand, many laws written by Marcos are still in force and in effect.

Out of thousands of proclamations, decrees, and executive orders, only a few were repealed, revoked, modified or amended. More importantly, many people who rose to power under Marcos continued to remain in power or even ascended higher after his exile, thus leaving a further imprint on present-day Filipino affairs.

One of these was Fidel Ramos , a general promoted by Marcos who supervised many terror killings and tortures, who later switched sides and subsequently fought elections and became president himself. I often wonder what I will be remembered in history for. Builder of roads, schools? Uniter of variant and antagonistic elements of our people?

He brought light to a dark country? Strong rallying point, or a weak tyrant? Massive foreign loans also enabled Marcos to build more schools, hospitals and infrastructure than all of his predecessors combined, [10] but at great cost. Today, according to Ibon Foundation, Filipino citizens are still bearing the heavy burden of servicing public debts incurred during Marcos's administration, with ongoing interest payments on the loan schedule by the Philippine government estimated to last until —59 years after Marcos assumed office and 39 years after he was kicked out.

Corazon Aquino had an opportunity to default and not pay foreign debt incurred during the Marcos administration. However, due to Finance Secretary Jaime Ongpin 's warning [] on the consequences of a debt default , which includes isolating the country from the international financial community and hampering the economic recovery, Corazon Aquino honored all the debts incurred during the Marcos Administration, [] contrary to expectations of left-learning organizations like Ibon foundation which advocated for non-payment of debt.

The amount of theft perpetrated by Marcos's regime was probably less than that by Suharto on Indonesia, but harmed our country more because the sums stolen by Marcos were sent out of the country, whereas Suharto's loot mostly were invested in Indonesia.

According to Jovito Salonga , monopolies in several vital industries were created and placed under the control of Marcos cronies , such as the coconut industries under Eduardo Cojuangco Jr. During the ICIJ's International Consortium of Investigative Journalists expose of offshore leaks in April , the name of his eldest daughter, Imee Marcos , appeared on the list of wealthy people involved in offshore financial secrecy.

It was revealed that she is hiding parts of her father's ill-gotten wealth in tax havens in the British Virgin Islands. Comparisons have also been made between Ferdinand Marcos and Lee Kuan Yew's authoritarian style of governance and Singapore's success, [] but in his autobiography, From Third World to First: It is a soft, forgiving culture.

Only in the Philippines could a leader like Ferdinand Marcos, who pillaged his country for over 20 years, still be considered for a national burial. Insignificant amounts of the loot have been recovered, yet his wife and children were allowed to return and engage in politics. According to Presidential Commission on Good Government , the Marcos family and their cronies looted so much wealth from the Philippines that, to this day, investigators have difficulty determining precisely how many billions of dollars were stolen.

In , some 10, Filipinos won a U. The claims were filed by victims or their surviving relatives consequent on torture, execution, and disappearances. Corazon Aquino repealed many of the repressive laws that had been enacted during Marcos's dictatorship.

She restored the right of access to habeas corpus , repealed anti-labor laws and freed hundreds of political prisoners. From to , a series of suits were brought before U. A jury in the Ninth Circuit Court awarded USD2 billion to the plaintiffs and to a class composed of human rights victims and their families.

Mariano Pimentel held that: The Philippines government claimed ownership of the funds transferred by Marcos in to Arelma S. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a former President of the Philippines. For his son, a politician and former senator of the Philippines, see Ferdinand Marcos Jr. In this Philippine name , the middle name or maternal family name is Edralin and the surname or paternal family name is Marcos.

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Military career of Ferdinand Marcos. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Timeline of the Marcos Dictatorship.

Philippine presidential election, Martial law in the Philippines. Marcos — Prime Minister Ferdinand E. Philippine presidential election and referendum, Vice President George H. Bush during Ferdinand E. Marcos inauguration, June [] [b]. Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. Philippine presidential election, and People Power Revolution.

Burial of Ferdinand Marcos. Ancestors of Ferdinand Marcos [] Fructuoso Edralin [] Emerenciana Taganas Quetulio First term of Ferdinand Marcos as President of the Philippines. Extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances in the Philippines.

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George Hagan. George Hagan, 81, passed away on Thursday, March He was born in Yoakum, Texas on April 30, to George and Sally Hagan. He came from a family of three brothers and seven sisters.