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A few years ago, I was giving an invited presentation to an audience of mostly sociologists and family studies professors on the topic of evolution and human reproductive strategies. I kid you not, I could see rows of people who looked genuinely horrified. It seems to me many critics of evolutionary psychology cling steadfastly to false stereotypes of the field, both theoretical and empirical. Add to that the methodological breadth of different techniques used by evolutionary scholars to test hypotheses about the adaptive design of the human mind, and it is understandably difficult to know what all evolutionary researchers have been, and currently are, up to as active Darwinian scientists.
Perhaps more than other social scientists, evolutionary psychologists use an incredible variety of research methods, ranging from self-report surveys and behavioral field test experiments, to investigations involving genetics, hormones, and neuroscience, to cross-species and cross-cultural comparisons, to ethnographies of foraging societies and computer modeling of artificial intelligences   .
Now, in science extreme skepticism is generally a good thing. Sometimes, though, this attitude is more than healthy skepticism about a particular empirical finding and is, instead, clearly an attitude of irrefutable empirical nihilism toward evolutionary psychology studies in particular.
Looking across the animal kingdom, one cannot help but notice that members of most species tend to mate non-randomly. Whether it is peahens preferring peacocks with more elaborate trains  or female common chimpanzees preferring males who possess higher social dominance  , males and females of most species display adaptive forms of preferential mate choice.
Evolutionary psychologists were among the first to propose similar sex differences might exist in human mate preferences. One way to evaluate whether women possess long-term mate preferences for cues to status-related traits is to directly ask people whether they prefer those attributes in long-term mates via methods such as self-report surveys , and then compare the intensity of responses of women and men.
Negative d values typically indicate women score more highly on a particular preference, whereas positive values indicate men score more highly. Obviously, these findings are not definitive proof that men and women differ in the evolved design of long-term mate preferences. The findings are merely tests of evolutionary-guided hypotheses, and the tests were supportive of specially-designed sex differences existing in human mate preferences.
Still, some critics challenge these results, arguing yes, but…. One cannot trust the results of just one study. Evolutionary psychologists need to conduct many more studies before I am convinced these effects are legitimate, let alone evidence of evolved psychology.
Actually, most investigations of sex differences in mate preferences have been supportive of these hypotheses to be honest, virtually all studies have.
Numerous additional investigations have since replicated these basic sex differences in long-term mate preferences among college students        . People in the real world e. Actually, yes they do   . Young or old    , gay or straight   , sex differences in long-term mate preferences for status-related attributes tend to reliably emerge. Sex differences in mate preferences are probably not historically stable.
They may have existed many decades ago in the era of Mad Men , but sex differences in mate preferences are surely not present in more recent times. Actually, yes they are. Researchers have questioned people about their long-term mate preferences using a wide variety of self-report methodologies.
Kenrick and his colleagues  asked people what the minimum threshold of possessing a particular attribute would need to be to agree to marry a person. Using another nuanced form of self-report, Li  compelled men and women to engage in tradeoffs among various cues when intentionally designing a desirable long-term mate.
Self-report surveys also reveal men, more than women, appear effective at displaying status-related traits to the opposite sex . If women have higher status themselves, they would not prefer men with high status. Americans happen to live in a culture with conspicuous gender stereotypes about mate preferences that the rest of the world does not share. Actually, no, they do not. Numerous studies have found sex differences in mate preferences for status-related attributes are prevalent across cultures   .
Hence, sex differences in the preference for Ambition-Industriousness in long-term mates were reduced though not by much, and were still medium in terms of effect size in nations with higher levels of gender egalitarianism. They may only be moderate in size, but we see them just fine. Thus, contrary to the expectation that gender egalitarianism always reduces sex differences, Zentner and Mitura found sex differences in Good Looks are largest in nations with the highest gender egalitarianism.
Actually, these findings are not unusual, as high gender egalitarian nations also exhibit larger sex differences in Big Five personality traits and the Dark Triad traits of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and psychopathy; in romantic attachment and love styles; in sociopolitical attitudes and personal values; in clinical depression rates and crying behavior; in tested cognitive and mental abilities; and in physical attributes such as height and blood pressure .
Feingold  meta-analytically examined what women ask for and what men advertise in public, real-world personal advertisements and found, as expected, women more than men ask for cues to willingness and ability to provide resources e. Men who advertise such status-related cues actually receive more responses from women, as well. For example, in a study that experimentally manipulated real-life personal ads, ads placed by men noting they were financially successful elicited the most interest, whereas for women physical attractiveness was the key .
In a study of Polish personal ads, the top four cues displayed by men that received responses from women were good education, older age, high resource levels, and tall height . In a study of mail order brides from Colombia, Russia, and the Philippines, women universally listed ambition, status, and wealth as among their most desired attributes in a future husband .
When a potential participant was a few yards away they had a male experimental confederate one of six male confederates pre-selected for high physical attractiveness open his car door and look the participant in the eyes and smile.
Then he approached her and said: I have to go to work now, but I was wondering if you would give me your phone number. As men get older, in contrast, they tend to desire and marry younger and younger women . Women have been found to preferentially marry higher status men across such diverse cultures as the Kipsigis of Kenya, the Hausa of West Africa, Trinidadians, and Micronesian islanders, among many others . In speed-dating studies with low status men included, and when the context is explicitly long-term mating only, women do pick higher status men more often for dates .
For instance, as part of a study ostensibly helping a university develop a dating service, Kenrick and his colleagues  experimentally manipulated whether already-mated men and women were exposed to a target date either very high in dominance or very low in dominance. They found women, but not men, were less committed to their current long-term mating partner after being exposed to a high dominance member of the opposite sex.
All of these cognitive processes occur differently in women and men without explicit, conscious awareness of why they are doing so. If women evolved mate preferences for status-related traits, then women who marry men of high status men should have more children. Actually, several studies by evolutionary psychologists have found women who marry higher status men tend to have more children, and to have children survive to an older age.
In a study of pre-industrial Finland from the s , women married to wealthier men had more children and decreased child mortality .
In another study, marrying a man four years older was associated with maximum levels of fertility among women . Bereczkei and Csanaky  conducted a study of 1, Hungarians over 34 years of age and found women who married older and better educated men tended to have more children. In fact, modern women who have higher personal incomes themselves tend to have fewer children .
Evolutionary psychology findings are extremely limited because they only apply to modern materialistic cultures. Several studies have documented this form of male status as being the subject of selective pressures i. Instead, women may view money as a proximal cue to the underlying qualities that they have evolved to care about, such as status, prestige, social dominance, ambition, work ethic, and intelligence .
So it is certainly true that ancestral men did not accumulate financial wealth, but focusing too much on the importance or not of money or wealth across all cultures is missing the adaptive forest for the trees. The idea of evolved sexual desires of any kind are a theoretical impossibility from my point of view! Evolved sex differences in mate preferences have to be just a figment of the imagination of evolutionary psychologists bent on maintaining patriarchy.
If the evidence is, on balance, supportive of women possessing long-term mate preferences for men with high status, why do so many post-modernists and social constructionists insist evolved sex differences are not, indeed cannot, be real ? First, the evidence of evolved sex differences in mate preferences is accumulating, but it is certainly not definitive. Evolutionary psychologists evaluate evidence of psychological adaptation in many ways  , including cross-species, neurological, hormonal, genetic, and epigenetic evidence that has not been reviewed here some examples of such evidence, see      .
Nothing in science is ever set in stone, and more evidence could emerge that would cast serious doubt about evolved sex differences in mate preferences though it would take quite a lot to tip the scales against the existence of this particular set of mate preferences.
Scientists are skeptical and open-minded, so anything is possible. Second, it is a mistake to pit post-modernism and social constructivism against evolutionary psychology as though they are in an intellectual death match that only one side can win. Much like partitioning the causes of human behavior into nurture versus nature or culture versus biology or learned versus innate, social constructivism versus evolutionary psychology is a false dichotomy that may feel intuitively correct but should not be utilized very often by serious scientists exceptions include behavioral genetics studies.
If natural selection had built a different set of learning mechanisms into an organism, that organism would learn a different set of behaviors in response to the very same environment. It is these evolved mechanisms that organize the relationship between the environmental input and behavioral output, and thereby pattern the behavior. For this reason, learning is not an alternative explanation to the claim that natural selection shaped the behavior, although many researchers assume that it is.
The same goes for culture. Ultimately, the adaptations of the human mind unearthed by evolutionary psychologists will likely play key roles in explaining precisely how and why human social constructionists have the mate preferences they do .
Third, some scholars believe, based on strict ideological commitments, that evolved psychological sex differences must not exist  or even if they do exist, studies of sex differences should be evaluated in ways that favor certain political ideologies over others, such as raising the evidentiary bar for evolutionary psychology hypotheses .
As a consequence of these political beliefs, many scholars chauvinistically dismiss or ignore much of the extant evidence accumulated by evolutionary psychologists.
Thinking like that is fallacious, it is wrong. What is natural is not inherently connected to what is desirable and thinking that way is committing the so-called naturalistic fallacy actually more related to the is-ought problem and appeal to nature fallacy.
Instead of this false point of view, evolutionary psychologists take the position that by knowing what our evolved psychological adaptations are, and precisely how they are expressed e. This includes utilizing the socially-constructive psychological adaptations in our mental toolkit to do so.
Evolved sex differences are not to be ideologically feared, they are to be scientifically evaluated and, if they exist, knowledge about their special design can be used to more efficiently create the healthy society within which we wish to live  . Lastly, there are some scholars who are actively deceiving people about empirical findings in evolutionary psychology e.
Many of these thinkers spread doubt about evolved mate preferences by alluding to a highly popular study by Eagly and Wood . Not true then, not true now. To the contrary, most cross-cultural studies find nations with the highest sociopolitical gender equality e. You read that correctly. Higher gender egalitarian nations tend to have larger sex differences in mate preferences for Good Looks, in Big Five personality traits and the Dark Triad traits of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and psychopathy; in romantic attachment and love styles; in sociopolitical attitudes and personal values; in clinical depression rates and crying behavior; in tested cognitive and mental abilities; and in physical attributes such as height and blood pressure .
Without the constraints of patriarchal sex role socialization, it appears men and women are freer to follow their evolved desires in ways that lead to even greater psychological difference . Many critics assert evolutionary psychologists rely solely on studies of college students, or unrepresentative samples, or out-of-date samples, or Westernized samples, or use only self-report methods, or ignore fertility outcomes, the list goes on.
In this case, these criticisms appear to be largely mistaken. Recall earlier that I mentioned many scholars fail to even acknowledge evolutionary psychologists expect women to have an evolved short-term mating psychology.
Breaking stereotypes about evolutionary psychology is hard. Overall, the breadth and depth of evidence for evolved long-term and short-term mate preferences in both men and women is, based on frameworks for evaluating evidence of psychology adaptation, rather strong  . The evolutionary psychology handbook , 2nd Edition Ed. How to carry out an exaptationist program. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25 , — Evaluating evidence of psychological adaptation: How do we know one when we see one?
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