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See also the SW Geauga Co. Address -- Historical -- Gen. Ford Address of Welcome -- -- P. Hitchcock Address -- Cattle Trade; R. Murray Address on Relics -- Oct. Denton Physicians of County, by Dr. Pomeroy Press of Geauga County, by J.

Russell township is No. The first settlers were the Russell family, consisting of Gideon Russell, wife and five children -- three sons and two daughters, namely: Ebenezer, William, Alpheus, Jemima, and Sally.

They moved into the woods, in the year , on the Chillicothe road, a little south of the center of the township. For about two years they were the only inhabitants that we know of. In the fall of Mr. Simeon Norton moved in with his family, consisting of himself and his wife, Sally, and one daughter, Melinda. He built a split and hewed log house, which is now standing, about half a mile south of the center on the north part of what is now known as the Benjamin Mathews farm, but was then the Russell farm.

The house has been removed. It was built by Mr. Norton back from the Chillicothe road some sixty rods or more, near a spring and not far from a road that was laid out from Cleveland to Warren, and partially opened for travel.

The Norton family was the second in town, and Orson Norton, the pioneer baby, was born on the thirty-first day of March, , being the first white child born in Russell, now living in Solon. Norton moved, in the fall of , to what was then known as the Eggleston Mills, in the southwest part of Bainbridge, now owned by James Fuller, son of Thomas Fuller the founder of Fullertown, at the northeast corner of Russell, in or Edward Paine, Captain Paine's father, who was then a very young man, was one of the committee to lay our and open the road.

It is said that they followed an Indian trail from the Tuscarawas river to the Scioto, where the Indians traveled from one river to the other. The old Chillicothe road passed the center of Russell to Bainbridge Center, and was, and is now, one of the leading roads of the township.

The township was named Russell in , I suppose, in honor of the first settlers. I think it was the last township settled and named in the county of Geauga, which at that time embraced Lake county within its limits.

At the commencement of its settlement, it was called the West Woods by the people of Newbury. The reason why it was not settled as soon as the adjoining townships, I suppose, to be that the speculators who bought of the Connecticut Land company, held it out of the market, or held it above the market price.

In Samuel Huntington owned four hundred and fourteen acres. A little later Nathaniel Matthews had about four hundred acres in the northwest quarter of the township.

Henry Champion owned one thousand acres, and the heirs of Daniel L. Coit owned a large quantity in the north and east parts of the township. Clark Robinson moved from Shaftsbury, Bennington county, Vermont, to Middlefield, in the fall of , and in , moved to the west part of Newbury, and bought a lot of land in Russell Center, division of Thomas Kinsman, on the east line of the township, at three dollars per acre.

He commenced in the woods near the spring, where his son, David, now lives, and on the eighth of November, , moved his family, consisting of his wife, Rebecca, and four children -- three sons, Clark, Edwin and David, and one daughter, Phebe, into the body of a log house, put up the day before, with no roof; had some loose boards for a floor, and in the night, had to get up and put up some boards end-ways to keep of the rain and snow. The old lady, between eighty and ninety years of age, lives with her son, David, on the same old farm.

She has probably done more hard work in the township than any other woman, having lived in it more than fifty years. Clark Robinson built the first frame buildings. The first was a cheese house, and is yet standing. The next was a barn. It was the custom, at that time, to name buildings when they were raised, and have a jug of whiskey at the raising.

At this raising the boss, Samuel Coleman, took the jug and stood on the ridge-pole, and as many as had a mind to, and were sober enough, went up and stood with him and swung their hats and hurrahed while he named the building and threw the jug down into the gulley below the spring.

Three of the first settlers in that part of the township came from Vermont, and married sisters -- William Jones, Thomas Manchester, and Clark Robinson. Jones located on the north side of the center road, on the east line of the township, opposite the Clark Robinson farm, and paid two dollars and seventy-five cents per acre for his purchase, cash down; and Manchester made his purchase and located farther to the west.

Roswell Jones, son of William Jones, lives on the old farm, and is the most extensive land owner in town. The three sisters were smart, energetic women, reared among the hills of Vermont, near the Green mountains, and were well calculated to endure the hardships of a new country. When David Robinson was six weeks old he started from Vermont for Ohio, in his mother's arms, on a pillow in a wagon. But few women would undertake a journey of five hundred miles under such circumstances.

We have two blacksmith shops at the center. The other is run by Jacob Chase, at present a justice of the peace, township clerk, and postmaster. John Robinson was the first teacher in the new house, and was followed by Esquire Utley, an old settler of Newbury. The first election held in the township was on the second day of April, There were twelve votes cast. Bell were elected overseers of the poor; Thomas Manchester and James M. Smith were elected fence viewers; William Russell was elected treasurer; Alpheus Russell was elected constable; Ebenezer Russell was elected supervisor of highways for district No.

April 10th, the trustees met and laid off the township into two highway districts. Clark Robinson was the first justice of the peace elected in Russell. His commission bears date October 25, Jonathan Rathburn and family moved in from Newburgh in Good-well and others soon after, settled in the south part of the township.

She has been unfortunate, and became partially deranged, and after wandering about the streets for many years, became an inmate of the insane asylum at Newburg in The first meetings were held in the south neighborhood, by a missionary sent by some society, with instructions to get what pay he could by contributions where he preached, and the society would make up the balance of his salary. It is said that the contributions were rather dry, the six pences being scarce at that time.

The ceremony took place on the twenty-sixth day of November, He was living with Mr. Rathburn, and had been boiling sap until about nine o'clock in the evening; he came in, and went to bed apparently as well as usual, was taken sick in the night, and yelled, and then came down stairs with his pants in his hand. They saw that he was very sick, and sent George Bell to Aurora for the doctor, but before he came to Brockway, he was dead.

His death, perhaps, was the most sudden of any that has occurred in the township, without any known cause. He came to the Center in , staid about a year, and was of the regular practice.

Doctors Eggleston and Ayres, both botanic physicians, came soon after Dr. Brown left, and staid a few years. Clark, botanic, located a little west of the Center, staid a short time, and left. It has always been too healthy in Russell for doctors to stay long. Clark Robinson started the first store, traded in anything the people had to sell, and kept for sale such goods as were then needed. One of the staple articles of commerce at that time was black salts -- something that every one could make that had land to clear up, by saving the ashes from the burnt log heaps and leaching them, and boiling the lye down to salts, which he would buy and haul to Pittsburgh and trade for nails, glass and other necessaries, there not being many superfluities when calico was forty-four cents a yard, and girls worked out for fifty cents a week.

Robinson took the job to cut the timber and log out the east and west road through the center of the town; he built the store and hotel at the center; was the first man in the township that bought cattle and drove them east.

He died March 21, Edwin Robinson married Almena Prouty, and now lives in Newbury with his third wife. David Robinson married Candace Scott and lives on the old farm. Robinson, came to Russell in September, , married Mary Morton of Newbury, and went into the grist-mill and distilling business in Newbury. They had one daughter, and in a few years his wife died, when he married Miss Laura Chase for his second wife.

They had three children -- George, Calvin, and Sophia, who are all living. Nathan moved from Newbury to Orange in Robinson built a saw- and grist-mill there on the Chagrin river, sold out in and dissolved partnership. After a few years his widow married Mr. Irben Green, and lives in the western part of Ohio. Edwin Robinson says that about fifty years ago the winter was so mild and warm that the herbage grew in the woods so that Esquire Hickox, of Burton, drove a hundred head of cattle down to Russell, in March, to feed them there.

He helped to watch and yard them nights, and they did well without any other feeding. Robinson took a job to make a road across the gulley on the east and west center road in Russell, about three-quarters of a mile west of the center. They took an ox-team and sled, with tools and provisions, and followed the newly cut road until they came to the river, went up stream to find a place to cross, had to cut away the underbrush to get along, built a brush shanty to sleep in nights, had straw and blankets for bedding and built a fire to cook pork and potatoes over.

There the writer did more cooking than ever he has done before or since. It took three of them and a team a week to do the job, for which they received seventeen dollars in cash. Russell township lies about fourteen miles south of Lake Erie, and is generally of a rolling or uneven surface, and yet not very hilly; not much swampy or waste land in the township. There is a large quantity of sandstone, suitable for building and bridging purposes, in a great portion of the township.

In almost every part of the east half nice sandstone quarries may be found, and in a part of the southwest quarter. The north branch of the Chagrin river rises in Munson, and is the outlet of Bass lake, or what used to be called Munson pond.

There was a project talked of at one time by the mill owners at Chagrin Falls, and along the stream, of making a dam at the outlet of the lake, and putting in a floom and gate, thus making a large reservoir to supply the mills in a dry time, but has not yet been done.

The river comes to this town not far from the northeast corner, at Fullertown. Thomas Fuller built a saw- and grist-mill, on the river, in the northwest corner of Newbury, about , and about , built his new grist-mill, a little way down the stream, in Russell, and it has been doing a good business about thirty years.

This northeast corner of the township was not settled very much until about Charles Jackson bought the corner lot.

Smith were elected fence viewers; William Russell was elected treasurer; Alpheus Russell was elected constable; Ebenezer Russell was elected supervisor of highways for district No. April 10th, the trustees met and laid off the township into two highway districts. Clark Robinson was the first justice of the peace elected in Russell. His commission bears date October 25, Jonathan Rathburn and family moved in from Newburgh in Good-well and others soon after, settled in the south part of the township.

She has been unfortunate, and became partially deranged, and after wandering about the streets for many years, became an inmate of the insane asylum at Newburg in The first meetings were held in the south neighborhood, by a missionary sent by some society, with instructions to get what pay he could by contributions where he preached, and the society would make up the balance of his salary. It is said that the contributions were rather dry, the six pences being scarce at that time.

The ceremony took place on the twenty-sixth day of November, He was living with Mr. Rathburn, and had been boiling sap until about nine o'clock in the evening; he came in, and went to bed apparently as well as usual, was taken sick in the night, and yelled, and then came down stairs with his pants in his hand.

They saw that he was very sick, and sent George Bell to Aurora for the doctor, but before he came to Brockway, he was dead. His death, perhaps, was the most sudden of any that has occurred in the township, without any known cause. He came to the Center in , staid about a year, and was of the regular practice. Doctors Eggleston and Ayres, both botanic physicians, came soon after Dr. Brown left, and staid a few years. Clark, botanic, located a little west of the Center, staid a short time, and left.

It has always been too healthy in Russell for doctors to stay long. Clark Robinson started the first store, traded in anything the people had to sell, and kept for sale such goods as were then needed. One of the staple articles of commerce at that time was black salts -- something that every one could make that had land to clear up, by saving the ashes from the burnt log heaps and leaching them, and boiling the lye down to salts, which he would buy and haul to Pittsburgh and trade for nails, glass and other necessaries, there not being many superfluities when calico was forty-four cents a yard, and girls worked out for fifty cents a week.

Robinson took the job to cut the timber and log out the east and west road through the center of the town; he built the store and hotel at the center; was the first man in the township that bought cattle and drove them east. He died March 21, Edwin Robinson married Almena Prouty, and now lives in Newbury with his third wife.

David Robinson married Candace Scott and lives on the old farm. Robinson, came to Russell in September, , married Mary Morton of Newbury, and went into the grist-mill and distilling business in Newbury.

They had one daughter, and in a few years his wife died, when he married Miss Laura Chase for his second wife. They had three children -- George, Calvin, and Sophia, who are all living. Nathan moved from Newbury to Orange in Robinson built a saw- and grist-mill there on the Chagrin river, sold out in and dissolved partnership.

After a few years his widow married Mr. Irben Green, and lives in the western part of Ohio. Edwin Robinson says that about fifty years ago the winter was so mild and warm that the herbage grew in the woods so that Esquire Hickox, of Burton, drove a hundred head of cattle down to Russell, in March, to feed them there.

He helped to watch and yard them nights, and they did well without any other feeding. Robinson took a job to make a road across the gulley on the east and west center road in Russell, about three-quarters of a mile west of the center. They took an ox-team and sled, with tools and provisions, and followed the newly cut road until they came to the river, went up stream to find a place to cross, had to cut away the underbrush to get along, built a brush shanty to sleep in nights, had straw and blankets for bedding and built a fire to cook pork and potatoes over.

There the writer did more cooking than ever he has done before or since. It took three of them and a team a week to do the job, for which they received seventeen dollars in cash.

Russell township lies about fourteen miles south of Lake Erie, and is generally of a rolling or uneven surface, and yet not very hilly; not much swampy or waste land in the township. There is a large quantity of sandstone, suitable for building and bridging purposes, in a great portion of the township. In almost every part of the east half nice sandstone quarries may be found, and in a part of the southwest quarter. The north branch of the Chagrin river rises in Munson, and is the outlet of Bass lake, or what used to be called Munson pond.

There was a project talked of at one time by the mill owners at Chagrin Falls, and along the stream, of making a dam at the outlet of the lake, and putting in a floom and gate, thus making a large reservoir to supply the mills in a dry time, but has not yet been done. The river comes to this town not far from the northeast corner, at Fullertown. Thomas Fuller built a saw- and grist-mill, on the river, in the northwest corner of Newbury, about , and about , built his new grist-mill, a little way down the stream, in Russell, and it has been doing a good business about thirty years.

This northeast corner of the township was not settled very much until about Charles Jackson bought the corner lot. Richard Ladow came from Onondaga county, New York, in The river runs from the northeast corner in a southwesterly direction, winding its way to the southwest corner, and leaves Russell, plunging over the rocks at the Falls, and runs about a mile farther, where it meets its twin sister, the south branch, from Aurora, where they mingle together and flow to the north through Orange, Mayfield, and Willoughby, and goes peacefully into the bosom of Lake Erie.

Russell township is well supplied with water power; there have been six saw-mills started in it; only two yet remain, timber for sawing having become scarce. Silver creek, a clear, rapid stream, comes to Russell in two branches. The east branch rises in Newbury; the south branch comes from Bainbridge. They unite about a mile east of the center, just above where Lovel Green, an old settler of Newbury, who came to Russell, in , built his saw-mill about ; thence it runs northwesterly, and unites with the Chagrin river.

It is said that the speckled trout live in it. It runs southwesterly through the northwest quarter of the township, going into Orange before it reaches the east and west center road. About , there were two saw-mills built on this brook--one by the Colton brothers, and run a short time; the other by Charles Graham, and is running yet.

This township abounds with large, beautiful springs of cold, clear, soft water. The timber is mostly beach and maple; some ash, whitewood, chestnut, cucumber, oak, and basswood. On the low lands black walnut, butternut, elm, sycamore, etc. Rail timber is getting scare, but stone is plenty.

Line fences are quite common now. There are some beautiful hedges, mostly of osage orange, generally, by the road side; some of willow. They grow rapidly in wet soil. Russell was five miles square before we lost the nine hundred acres taken from the southwest corner in It is in 41 degrees 30 minutes north latitude, and in longitude 4 degrees 20 monutes west from Wasington, and 81 degrees 20 minutes west from Greenwich. The climate is healthy, soil good for grass and grain; dairying and stock-raising the leading occupation; sheep doing well on the uplands; fruit grows in abundance generally.

The people are quiet, civil, and industrious; mostly Yankees; some foreigners. Orton Judson built a saw-mill in the north part of Russell, on the north bank of the Chagrin river, a little east from where it crosses the Chillicothe road and got it running in He put in a run of stone, and so we had a grist mill.

Cyrus Bailey came about , and took up two lots about half a mile west from the center, where the river crosses the east and west centre road. In , his father, Iddo Bailey, sr. There was yet another built by Aaron Bliss, on the river, down near the falls, about From to , the settlers came in very fast--Nicholas Dowen, G. Shaw, Eliphalet Johnson, Robert O. The laws regulating the common schools were re-organized by the general assemby of the State of Ohio, March 1, , making each township one school district, and confined to the control and management of a board of education, and the whole divided into sub-districts, and to be controlled by local directors.

In , the centennial year, there were nine sub-districts and a fraction, in Russell, and the average wages of teachers was: Whole amount paid teachers that year was one thousand and ninety-two dollars. The first members were Charles T.

Bailey and wife, David Patridge and wife, G. Pelton and wife, and Charles Shaw -- seven members. Their first resident preacher was Orrin Ford, a very zealous man. Under his labors the membership increased in a few years to about sixteen.

They held meetings around in private houses for a few years, when they built the first meeting house in the township, about the year , on land then owned by Nicholas Dowen, now owned by S. Robinson, about a quarter of a mile west of the center. The house has been moved across the road, and is now used as a dwelling house.

It is reported that a large, fat brother, said that if they were going to build such a house as that they need not put in anything for a pulpit, he could stand and hold out a shingle for the preacher to lay the Bible on.

The Wesleyan Methodist Church. Childs was chosen deacon, and A. Childs was chosen clerk, which had become reduced to the two families mentioned, when their organization was given up, and they, uniting with those who came away from the Methodist Episcopal church, formed the Wesleyan Methodist church, and in they bought a piece of land of L. Tambling, two miles north of the center, on the west side of the Chillicothe road, a nice sandy knoll for a burying ground, and to build a meeting house on, and four of them paid for it, to-wit: Childs, and had it deeded to the trustees of the first Wesleyan Methodist church in Russell, and to their successors in office.

The first three named that paid for the burying ground are dead and gone to their reward; Mr. Childs is living yet. He says that in they began to make preparations -- to build a meeting house, but, being poor, and new beginners, it went on slow, but with a hard struggle with poverty and bad management, it was finished.

Free Will Baptist Church. The first members were: Henry Whipple, John Walters, R. Walters and wife, Sarah S. McConoughey, and Jehiel Goodwill. Their first preachers were: Moulton and Henry Whipple -- eight members. They met at the Isham school-house, and, after a few years, located at Chagrin Falls, and are alive yet.

Jackson Gifford and wife, Mrs. After awhile they became reduced in numbers, and finally sold their house, and it was moved away, about The Baptist meeting house was built, in , two miles south of the center, at Soules Corners.

The Disciple congregation was organized, in , by Charles Bartlett. Smith, Benjamin Matthews and wife, and Mr. Lillie was their first resident preacher. Hayden was the first to call the attention of the people to the principles of the reformation. Jones, Jonas Hartzel, Dr. Belding, and other preachers, have labored there.

Isaac Errett, and A. Hayden held the first meeting in the Disciple house, January, They were active business men. Soule died there in a few years. Myron Soule died, March 22, , in Russell.

The Union meeting-house at the center was built in Burns is at present preaching at the Disciple bouse one-half of the time. About , the ladies of the Disciple congregation organized a sewing society.

Soule was the first president, and Cordelia Robinson, treasurer. Its object was to help the needy. It continued but a few years.

The Soldiers' Aid Society. James Cooper, first president; Mrs. Ahira Haven, vice-president, and Mrs. Cooper acted a few months, when Mrs. David Robinson was chosen president, and acted during the war. The society labored faithfully for the brave soldiers in the field. There was no estimate made of the value of the large amount of hospital stores sent on. They packed one dozen boxes, and sent some packages.

The contents were twenty comforts, thirty quilts, twenty-nine sheets, fifty-five pillows, seven pillow-ticks, fifty-eight pairs of pillow-cases, one hundred and seventy-one shirts, fifty-six pairs of drawers, eighty towels, one hundred and twenty-one handkerchiefs, one hundred and nineteen pairs of socks, fifty-eight pounds of bandages and compresses, one hundred and one pounds of dried fruit, twenty pounds of lint, one-half barrel of pickles, one and a half bushels of onions, one blanket, plates, spoons, pins, etc.

The village of Chagrin Falls until was about equally divided, lying in two counties, one-half in the southwest corner of Russell township, Geauga county, and the other half in Orange, Cuyahoga county, making it inconvenient for the inhabitants. Vincent was at that time a member of the Ohio legis lature, and living at the Falls, secured the passage of an act transferring nine hundred acres of land from the southwest corner of Russell to Cuyahoga county, and attached it to Orange, and in order to make a fair show of honesty, gave in exchange nine hundred acres from the northeast part of Orange to Geauga county, and attached it to Russell While that taken from Russell was good farming land with half the village on it, that given in exchange from Orange, was nearly worthless, being rough, hilly land, lying along the east side of the Chagrin, cut up with deep gulleys.

Then, when the people of Geauga county found that they had got shaved, an effort was made to get the law repealed, but failing in that, they got so much of it repealed, as compelled them to take the Orange land.

Consequently Russell lost her best corner. About the year there was an American order or subordinate council organized in Russell. Their object was said to be, to purify the body politic, and place our country upon an American platform, to Americanize America, and to resist all efforts to unite Church and State.

It seemed to spread rapidly for a while. It is said that there were organized in Ohio within a year, over one thousand councils with a membership of one hundred and twenty thousand, called Know-Nothings.

A constitution and by-laws for a Grant club was signed in Russell, by one one hundred and forty-three members, in The South Russell cemetery is located about a half mile west of Soule's Corners, on a nice, dry, gravelly knoll. One-half acre was purchased of S. Willard, November 15, , for forty dollars. In it was enlarged. A strip two rods wide, on the south side, was bought of Isaac Rairick for ten dollars, and added to the lot. The first one buried there was Stephen Losey, who was killed by a tree falling on him while chopping.

This was the first public burying-ground located in Russell. There are quite a number of them in the township. Asa Robinson came to Newbury in , from Massachusetts, and died at the residence of his son Benjamin, in Russell, in , aged seventy-three. He had a family of nine children, five sons and four daughters -- four sons now living in Russell.

Artemus and Benjamin came in Artemus located at the center; Benjamin a little south. John Robinson was one of the clerks at an election held in Russell in , and now lives about a mile north of the center. David lives in the southwest part of the township. Anson Mathews was a justice of the peace of Russell in He was a prominent business man, and a member of the legislature about David Osborn, an early settler in the southwestern part of the township, died March 26, , aged eighty-nine years and nine months.

His wife, aged fifty-six, died the same day, and both were buried in the same grave. Benjamin Mathews came to Russell from Massachusetts in , with his family.

Mathews died in April, The children are married; some living in Ohio, some in Michigan. Harry Isham and Tabor Warren came to Russell about , and located on the Chillicothe road, about one and one-half miles south of the center. Isham died in Warren is still living there. Harry Burnett, one of the early settlers of Newbury, came to Russell in Burnett and wife are living with their son, Joshua, west of Soule's Corners.

Both are between eighty and ninety years of age. Ithiel Wilber and wife, also from Newbury, are living where A. Soule did before he went to Michigan.

Parley Wilder, one of our oldest citizens, lives east of the corners. John Lines, living southeast of the center, on the Champion tract, paid eight dollars per acre in The population of Russell in was seven hundred and forty-two, and in , was one thousand and eighty-three; from about that time it has been growing less.

In there were over fifty scholars in the center school district, now less than ten in other districts the decrease is less , and there are some reasons for it. One is, the children have grown up and gone, another is, one man has bought out his neighbors, their farms have become larger, and schools less. It is estimated that the population has decreased about one-third. The great drouth of was very severe. The district of country that suffered the most, was about one hundred miles in length, and fifty or sixty in width, extending along the southern shore of Lake Erie.

Geauga county suffered greatly. There was no rain from about the first of April until the tenth of June, when it rained a little for one day; no more until the second of July, when it rained enough to make the roads a little muddy; no more until September. Many wells, springs and streams of water became dry, and others nearly so.

The grass crop almost entirely failed, the pastures in some places were so dry that the dust would rise in walking over them.

The grass in meadows would burn like a stubble. Corn and oats were nearly a failure, some fields of wheat were not harvested; scions set in the nursery dried up; forest trees shed their leaves much earlier than usual; many witheredr The grasshop pers were so plenty, and green herbage so scarce that they trimmed thistles and elders by the roadside. It was built in by Anson Bartlett, who went to Rome, New York, and spent one summer learning the factory mode of making cheese.

The second year he conducted the factory it worked the milk of one thousand cows. Pelton built the first cheese factory in Russell, in , near the center of the town, and ran it successfully several years, then sold it to Messrs. Smith and Harry Burnett, and they have been doing a good business there the seasons of , and are running now ; cheese low from five to seven and one-half cents.

About fourteen years ago, at the time of the great Rebellion, it was high. It ranged from ten to eighteen cents per pound. The Union cheese factory at South Russell, was built in , by R. Roberts, Mark Mathews, Isaac Rairick, and other stockholders, at a cost of two thousand seven hundred and thirty-three dollars and seventy-two cents, is yet running and doing a good paying business.

July 13, , there was a division of the order of the sons of temperance organized at the center of Russell, with about forty charter members, called Russell Center Division, No.

The first officers were: Robinson, treasurer; Joseph Wooley, chaplain; H. About forty years ago it was said that there had been some land cleared in the northwest part of Russell, and had grown up to bushes and briars, and it was called Huntington place. No one seemed to know when it was done, until now, I have found a sister of the pioneer. She says her brother, David Huntington, came to Russell about or , and bought a piece of land in the northwest quarter of the township, built a log house on what is clalled the Burgess farm, made a clearing, raised a piece of wheat there; that his health failed him, and he left the place in four years.

Being unable to work, he wrote to his brother Daniel, and in he came from New York State, and went on the place and lived there a while; that their neighbors were in Chester, on the north, and in Orange, west; that he went over the river and worked for a Mr. Dean, to get corn; would take a bushel and carry it home on his back at night, and the next day take it to Fuller's mill to be ground, and home again the same way, making in all about ten miles' travel with a bushel on his back.

No wonder he left. The politics of Russell have changed somewhat; the Democrats used to have a majority. At the presidential election of , they had seven majority for Polk. Now the Republicans have a very large majority -- some over a hundred. The inhabitants of Russell are a reading people. In there were about two hundred periodicals taken in the township. The number taken at each house varied some. They ranged from none to five; generally one. The great Murphy temperance wave that is sweeping over the country, struck Russell in the spring of , and the National Christian Temperance union of Russell was organized May 29, , by Messrs.

Rising and Jackson, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Robinson, secretary; Haven Roberts, treasurer. They came about , built a lot of wagons for Nathan Robinson, at the sawmill, then located at the center, and stayed until , when C. Bartlett, our present wagon maker, came. Hiram Jones built the first shop at the center; had plenty of work for a number of years. There has been no shoemaker here for the last ten or fifteen years.

All have left; as also have the tailors. The people buy their boots, shoes, and clothing, ready-made. He located in the south part, and was there in He left the place in , or about that time. His compensation, the first quarter, amounted to about thirty-one cents.

Christopher Edic was the next postmaster. He, living at the center, held the office awhile under postmaster Russel -- when he was appointed. In the art gallery at the centennial were found two portraits, in the exhibit of that enterprising photographer, Ryder, of Cleveland: Parks, of Elyria, Ohio, who, in , carried the mail from Erie, Pennsylvania, to Cleveland, Ohio, on horseback; and by the side of it, that of General Geo. Bangs, who, in , inaugurated the means of carrying the mail over the same route, in fifty ton lots, a mile a minute.

Samuel Robinson came to Russell, in , was married to Miranda Patterson, of Newbury, December 2, ; went into partnership with his brother, Nathan; continued in it about fourteen years, under the firm name of N.

Robinson; bought a grist-mill and distillery, that Harry Burnett and Ithiel Wilber had built, in Newbury, on the east branch of Silver creek, just before it runs into Russell. They ran them about seven years; did custom work in the mill.

Besides grinding for the still, they ground many grists that men and boys brought on their backs from Russell and the west part of Newbury. They had the underbrush cut out through the woods, from the Bell settlement to the Chillicothe road, so that the people could come to mill with ox-sleds, stone-boats, on horseback, or a-foot.

Some came from Bainbridge. The mill was in the woods, between two roads that were a mile apart; yet it was not very lonesome there. They had a good run of custom, for some reason or other.

The mill-stones were worked out of solid flint rocks, or large hard-heads; were four feet across, and the runner would weigh over a ton. Thomas Billings, of Newbury, said that he helped get them out, and that they cost about sixty dollars. They have been at works in three places -- first in Newbury, next in Orange, and then in Russell, where they now lie buried, where the Bailey saw-mill stood. The saddest affair that has ever occurred in Russell was the burning of Mr.

Cyrus Millard's house, March 7, , when a brother of Mr. Millard's, aged fourteen, and four children, the oldest seven and the youngest two years old one son and three daughters , were burnt to death in it, while Millard and wife were gone to a neighbor's in the evening.

How it took fire is not known. About this time, or perhaps before, there was a man by the name of Jerome living near the northwest corner of the township; a lame man. One stormy day, late in November, he went to the center and got a jug of whiskey, started for home towards night but failed to reach there. The next day search was made for him.

It having snowed that night he was not found until the following day. When found he was sitting up against a tree, dead and frozen, with his jug standing beside him.

In the spring of Mr. Lyman Washburn was killed by the fall of a tree. In the fall of Frank Newel was killed by the fall of a limb from a tree during a shower. He was the first one buried in the new burying ground of north Russell, but it has filled up quite fast since then.

Northwest Russell began to be settled about Bailey, George Edic, and John Wooley were about the first in the woods, about In and provisions were very high and scarce. Joseph Wooley said that he and some others traveled in four townships before they could find anything to make bread of. They would eat coons, woodchucks and wild turkeys, but deer were then scarce, and the first settlers not used to hunting, being mostly foreigners. In , and J. Childs, James Logan, Allen Burgess, Orrin Ford, Van Valkenburghs, Judd, Barber, David Houghton, Washburn, the Coltons, and others, all built log houses, had logging bees, were sociable and friendly, went to meeting on foot or with ox and sled, wagon or stoneboat, worked hard, slept well, and took comfort.

About there was a revival of religion when Joseph Wooley joined the Methodist church. He was very active and took a prominent part in the cause; was recemmended by the class to the quarterly conference, and was licensed to exhort in , appointed deacon in , and ordained in , by Bishop Scott.

He is yet with us, a good, faithful, christian man, well liked as a neighbor and preacher. There have been two other preachers raised here in the woods -- Henry Whipple who became an eminent preacher of the Free Will Baptist order, a self made man In he had a little hut made of poles and covered with poles and brush. It stood near where the Weslyan meeting house now stands. It was called "Henry Whipple's study. Childs was born and brought up here, he went to Oberlin a year, and is now preaching for the Wesleyan order.

I am indebted to Mr. Childs for a considerable portion of the history of northwest Russell. On the morning of September 13, , the Chagrin river rose higher than it had ever been known to rise before. It had been raining steadily for three days, the rain falling in torrents on the night of the twelfth. The destruction of property was very great. Cattle, sheep, fences, fields of grain, mill-dams and bridges were swept away. It was the policy of our fathers to prepare for war in time of peace, hence we had company trainings and general trainings; but the militia system was so changed that trainings ceased, and the Rebellion found us unprepared for war.

The first company training held in Russell was in , and they were kept up until about , when the law was repealed. George Terrell, killed in battle. William Terrell, Samuel Beswick, died of measles.

John Beswick, died of measles. John, killed in battle at Perrysburgh. Sherman Logan, Henry Logan, died at Andersonville.

Silas Childs, Henry Scott, A. Burgess, Warren Green, came back -- died from a wound. Benson Rose, Joseph Ayres, killed at Perrysburgh. Charles Danforth, Robert Schuyler, killed. John Schuyler, Henry Schuyler, wounded. John Mason, substitute for Joshua Burnett. Thomas Sanders, substitute for M. Roberts, drafted, was under pay one day and discharged. I have endeavored to give as full and correct a list of the brave soldiers that went from Russell to crush out the great Rebellion, as I could gather under the circumstances, after a lapse of more than twelve years since the close of the war, and no record kept of them at the time.

Originally it was divided into three tracts, the lines of which run from the east to the west lines of the township.

Tract one consists of all the north part of the township, and contains six thousand and three acres of land, and was purchased of the Connecticut Land company, November 3, , by Samuel Lord. The south line of tract one is the north line of land now owned by Pierce Whipple.

Tract two is the central part of the township, and contains four thousand and forty-three acres, and was purchased of the Connecticut Land company, in , by Judson Canfield, David Waterman, James Johnson, Nathaniel Church, Elijah Wadsworth and Frederick Wolcott, in common. In a deed or partition was executed, giving to each of the above named purchasers their proportion of the tract, viz: The south line of tract two is the south line of the land now owned by Rufus Pettibone, and was purchased of the Connecticut Land company, September 10, , by Nathaniel Gorham and Warren Parks, and, December 19, , was sold by Gorham and Parks to Benjamin Gorham.

March 7, , Simon Perkins purchased of Benjamin Gorham the west part of tract three, containing 4, acres. Soon after Calvin Austin purchased the balance, and for a time township No. Each of the tracts one, two, and three, were subdivided into lots.

Tract one has forty-eight lots, numbering from south to north across the tract. Tract two has twenty-eight lots, of unequal size, numbering from west to east.

Tract three has thirty-two lots, of nearly equal size, commencing to number at the northeast corner of the tract, thence south and north across the tract. All of lots fifteen, thirty-four, thirty-seven to forty-eight inclusive, containing one thousand and nine hundred and fifty-eight acres, in tract three, was sold to Asa Foot, December 26, , for the sum of forty-seven dollars and thirty-seven cents, being the tax due for and It was subsequently redeemed by Samuel Lord, for one hundred dollars.

The Chillicothe is the oldest road, having been surveyed under the direction of the State, by Edward Paine, in The line of the road is north and south, a little east of the center of the township. There are two other roads running north and south, between the Chillicothe and the east line of the township, which extend across it. West of the Chillicothe there are none extending across the township, north and south, and only one leading east and west across the township, and that the center road, leading from Auburn, on the east, to Solon, Cuyahoga county, on the west.

There are two railroads running through the township. The Atlantic and Great Western railway crosses the southwest corner, making nearly two miles of road in the township, with a small station, known as Geauga Lake. The Canton, Bridgeport and Painesville railway crosses the northwestern corner, with about one mile of road in the township.

This road is completed only from Solon to Chagrin Falls. The main branch of the Chagrin river enters the town from the south a short distance west of the center line, its source being the Harmon pond in Aurora.

It continues its course northerly, and leaves the town on the west line north of the center line, continuing to run northerly to Lake Erie. A tributary of the Chagrin runs through the south part of Auburn and Bainbridge, leaving the latter at Centerville Mills, about one hundred rods from its confluence with the main branch in Aurora.

Another tributary known as the Plumb Bottom creek it derived its name from the great number of wild plumb trees which formerly grew along its margin , rises at a spring a few rods west of the west line of Auburn, near the road leading from Auburn to Bainbridge, thence running westerly to its confluence with the main branch at a point directly west of where it rises. Nearly all the streams and the tributaries in the township are the outflow of pure springs which issue from the fissures of the drift rock, which underlies the town.

So numerous are the springs that few farms lack a supply of pure spring water. Geauga lake formerly known as Giles pond , is situated in the southwest corner of the town in lot twenty-eight, tract three, and is the head water of Tinker's creek which empties into Cuyahoga river. The waters of this lake are very pure and of great depth. On the south of it is a beautiful gravel beach. Its location, geologically, is an anomaly, being in a basin-like depression within less than one-half a mile of the deep ravine, through which the Chagrin river passes, with its drainage in the opposite direction from the river.

The timber consists largely of beech and maple, with an abundance of white ash and a limited supply of oak and chestnut. Whitewood, cucumber, basswood and cherry are quite abundant, and along the streams some black walnut is found.

The soil is a deep sandy or clay loam, bordering in many places on sand very rich and productive. Stone is abundant for building purposes. The principal quarries are found on land owned by J. Osborn, and William Hutchins. At a meeting of the county commissioners held at Chardon on the first Monday of March, , township number six, in the ninth range, was given the name of Bainbridge, which included what was subsequently called Auburn. When the separation from Auburn took place is not positively known.

The chattel tax duplicate of contains names of tax payers who then resided in Bainbridge, which included the territory which is now Auburn, and in those names were separated, and are in Auburn and Bainbridge townships. Hence I conclude the separation took place in the summer of Who the first township officers were, or when or where the first election took place it is impossible to determine, as the records are lost.

The citizens of the township have always manifested a due appreciation of educational advantages and have taken much interest in their common schools. There are ten school districts now in the township, four of which are union districts, composed of the territory from Solon on the west, and Aurora on the south, annexed to Bainbridge for school purposes. There has always been a good supply of resident teachers.

Among the most efficient and experienced of the present time, are: Bliss, Sylvia Pettibone, Fanny McCollum, Mary Whipple, and others of less experience who bid fair to become teachers of the first rank. In addition to the common schools, select schools have been taught at different times in the township. One is now in session which is being taught by J. The total amount of money expended for tuition, and other school purposes, during the last six years was nine thousand seven hundred and forty-one dollars and ninety-eight cents.

The first school in the township was taught in a small log house, near George Smith's, by a young man from Windham, named Skiff, in The pioneers of Bainbridge were men of early christian training, and had much of the puritanic regard for the rights and influences of religious society, and at a very early day religious meetings were held in the township, and on the ninth of June, , the Congregational church was organized by John Leslie, a traveling missionary.

The following persons were its first members, viz: Soon after Lydia Childs' and Hannah North's names were added, making twelve members.

Jonas Childs was chosen moderator, and Asahel North, clerk. For many years it was a very prosperous and flourishing society, and early in its history, and , erected a very commodious church building on land leased for that purpose from Joseph North. In and there was quite an extensive revival of religion, and the church received many accessions, but soon dissensions arose and some withdrew from the society, and very few were added to its numbers for many years.

In Oliver O. Brown, a man of little moral worth, purchased the farm from which the site for the church was leased, claiming that he had bought the site and made an effort to prevent religious services being held in the church.

Becoming exasperated by some denials of his right to the property, he entered the church, October 13, , tore out the pulpit and its adornings and burnt them in front of the church. The society soon took the necessary legal measures and defeated his purpose to hold the property. By death and removal the society's numbers gradually decreased, and about nine years since the church building was sold for secular purposes.

Among the pastors of this church were: Clark, Bridgman, Parmelee, Childs, and Ward. The last scheduled pastor was Rev. The Methodist Episcopal church was organized in the spring of , by Rev.

Plimpton, with thirty members. Harvey Baldwin was appointed class-leader. The principal members were: Joseph Ely and wife, Phillip Haskins and wife, P. McConoughey and wife, Asahel North, Jr. Services were held in private houses first, and later, in the log house built for a town hall.

In the old church was sold to the township, for a town hall, and a new one erected in the summer of , on the site of the old hotel kept by Stewart and others , at a cost of about six thousand dollars. We have the names of all the ministers who have labored for the society since its organization in , but the list is lengthy and we name only those who were among the first, viz: William Sawyze was the first presiding elder; B.

Plimpton the first minister sent here by the Erie conference. Then followed Ira Eddy, William H. Collins, Orrin Gilmore, P. Stedman, and many others. The name of the present pastor is T. There is now a flourishing Sabbath-school connected with the church, of which C. In a Universalist society was organized by Rev. Services are held in the town hall every alternate Sabbath. A Sabbath-school has also been organized, with Miss Lizzie Shaw as superintendent. In commencing the biographical history of the settlement of Bainbridge, we append a sketch of the McConoughey family, the first who settled in the township, the principle part of which was obtained from notes, written by Rev.

McConoughey, the youngest of the family, and the first child born in the township. David McConoughey was the first settler in what is now the township of Bainbridge, having moved within its limits on Thanksgiving day, He was of Scotch-Irish descent. His grandfather also named David emigrated to America from the north of Ireland, soon after his marriage, about the year He first settled in what was then Watertown, near Boston, Massachusetts.

There his son David was born, in February, In , the family removed into what is now Blandford, Hampden county, Massachusetts. There the grandfather, and father of David third died; the latter, in , aged seventy-four years. He was a soldier in the patriot army of the Revolution. He served with credit, and received an honorable discharge and a land warrant for his services.

He had a fine education, and was the clerk of the township of Blandford about twenty years. His son, David McConoughey third , was born in Blandford, Massachusetts, August 6, , and died in Bainbridge, September 25, ; aged eighty-two years. His wife was Mary Carter. She was of Scotch, English, and Welsh ancestry. Her father was Scotch, her mother English and Welsh. Her great-grandfather was a Scottish nobleman, tracing his descent from a sister of Robert Bruce.

The name was originally McCarter, but one of his progenitors, for his gallantry in battle, received the honor of knighthood, with a change of name to Cartter.

The progenitor of the family in America came over about the year , and settled in Virginia. His plantation was destroyed by an incursion of the Indians, upon which event he removed to Massachusetts, and settled in Boston. His only son, James Bruce Carrter, was educated at Harvard college, for a minister of the gospel, but preferred the sea to the pulpit; was owner and captain of an East Indiaman, and for many years was a successful trader.

After a time fickle fortune deserted him. His vessel, with its cargo, were lost at sea; he narrowly escaped with his life. In reduced circumstances, he took up his abode in Westfield, Massachusetts, and engaged in teaching Greek and Latin, in which he was an accomplished scholar.

He taught the first school ever taught in Blandford, where, for a time, he resided. His son, Nehemiah, was born in Westfield. After having shared life's toils, its joys; and sorrows for more than fifty-seven years, this venerable couple repose side by side at the summit of a beautiful eminence, in the northeastern part of the township, and very near the home of their later years.

There, also, rest the remains of many of their descendants. The family left Blandford, Massachusetts, November 9, The family consisted of father, mother, and six children, three of each sex. The eldest, a son, nearly nineteen years of age; the youngest, a son, about three years old. The journey at that season of the year was extremely tedious and dreary. The distance of nearly six hundred miles, through mud and snow, with one yoke of oxen, and one horse, was traversed in fifty-three days.

Of what occurred during the journey we have no account, save of the last night, which was spent in the woods in Bedford, the second town west of Bainbridge, where they encamped for the night, and were serenaded through the weary hours by bands of hungry wolves, who seemed chanting their own death song, as well they might at the coming of this family, who aided very much in their extermination. On the first day of January, , they arrived at the cabin of Samuel McConoughey, a younger brother of David, who had settled in the northwestern part of Aurora, in Here the family remained till the following November.

In the early part of the year , Mr. McConoughey purchased one hundred acres of land of Benjamin Gorham, in the southeast corner of Bainbridge, in lot three, tract three , now owned by Lucas Hurd. Upon this land the father and sons commenced clearing away a portion of the forest, and building a cabin, which was ready for occupancy, and to which the family moved on Thanksgiving day, It was a rudely constructed cabin, eighteen by twenty feet, of round logs, a huge fire-place, a puncheon floor made of logs split, and the flat surface upwards, a stick chimney, plastered inside with clay mortar to prevent it taking fire a precaution not always successful , without chamber floor, a cover of long split shingles, held in place by heavy poles, one door opening north, and not a pane of glass in the apertures which served as windows.

The scanty supply of furniture was brought from the old home, with the exception of a few articles manufactured by the family.

For a short time there were no other inhabitants in the tract of wilderness now known as Bainbridge. To the east of them, lay what is now Auburn township, in which there was no human habitation, their nearest neighbor being the brother in Aurora.

Between the two cabins lay nearly six miles of unbroken forest, infested with bears and wolves, intersected by streams of water, and dotted with black ash swamps, which must be traversed in visiting the nearest neighbor and friend. We fancy there were many sad, lonely hours, in which the friends of their early life and dear old home were tearfully remembered. But they were people of much practical sense; and the wife and mother had a purpose in coming to that wilderness home, which, if accomplished, would repay her for all the toil and privation of the undertaking.

She was striving to save her family from the blighting curse of intemperance, which threatened the destruction of all she held most dear. The result proved the wisdom of her attempt, and rewarded her sacrifices and sufferings.

She had a great deal joy of seeing her husband become a christian and total abstainer from all intoxicating drinks, and to see her children grow up intelligent, respectable people, utterly abhorring rum and rum-sellers. McConoughey was a quiet, unambitious man, of clear perception and unquestionable integrity. He was never wealthy, and never aspired to be. When about fifty years of age he became a christian, and a year or two later united with the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he remained a worthy member till his death.

His wife was also a member of the same church. McConoughey was far more aspiring and ambitious than her husband, and was more energetic and enterprising. She possessed a very superior intellect, and retained her faculties unimpaired till the last hour of life. She was a kind and devoted mother, and a true christian. The sons of the family were all bred to farming, which occupation they all engaged in through life, with the exception of the younger one, Austin N.

During a few last years of David, Jr. The daughters all married farmers, and were all estimable women. The eldest son, Colonel P.

McConoughey, was one of the famous hunters of this section, killing deer, bears, elk, and wolves, in great numbers. It is said he was known to have killed as many as five bears in a single day. On one occasion, while hunting in company with Josiah Nettleton, he killed four full-grown deer, and Nettleton, five, in little more than half a day -- Nettleton lending his rifle to McConoughey, with which he killed his fourth.

The father was also a hunter of some note, killing scores of bears and wolves. A bear story is related of the two hunters and a famous bear dog, which may be of interest. A very large hollow tree had been felled for bears. Porter, and his cousin Jarvis McConoughey, had fired through a small opening at a bear inside of the tree, when the dog rushed into the large hollow, attacked the bear, which was but slightly wounded.

The howls and growls which were heard by the hunters indicated that a furious battle was raging, in which bruin would be the victor. The father instantly threw off his coat, and went down the hollow to the rescue of the dog. It was twenty feet from the entrance to the scene of action. Here he seized the dog by the hinder legs and slowly worked himself back until Porter could reach his feet, and by his assistance all were drawn out together, the dog and bear locked in a mutual grip by teeth and claws.

The bear, which was a very large one, weighing over four hundred pounds, was instantly run through the heart with a lance, called the bear-spear, in the hands of the senior. On examination the tree was found to contain two more bears, each of more than half the size of the mother. As before stated, there were six children of the McConoughey family, who came with the parents to Bainbridge, of whom Col. He was twice married; first to Miss Margaret Nettleton, in Eight children were born of this union, seven of whom survived the father, and five are still living.

The mother died in Five children were born of this marriage, four of whom are living. His widow is still living, and resides in Oberlin, Ohio. First, to Zebina Kennedy, of Aurora, February 22, This was the first marriage in the township of Bainbridge. The ceremony was performed by Esquire Blackman, of Aurora.

Kennedy lived but a short time after his marriage, having some connection with the soldiers near Lake Erie, where he visited and contracted a disease from which he died, very soon after his return, and in less than three months after her marriage, the young bride was called to exchange bridal robes for widow's weeds.

She was married the second time in August, , to Julius Riley, of Aurora the ceremony at each marriage was performed by Esquire Blackman, of Aurora. She died in Aurora, April, Her husband is still living. The second daughter of the Conoughey's, Selina M. She was married March 20, , to Horace Crosby, of Bainbridge. The fruits of this marriage was one daughter.

Crosby died in Oberlin, February 26, Crosby is now living in Oberlin, where she has resided over forty-three years. She is nearly eighty-two years old, still retains a great degree of mental and physical vigor, has walked to church, a distance of a mile, within the past year, but for a number of months has been feeble, with little prospect of recovery.

Sally, born at Blandford, March 17, , died in , and sleeps in Blandford. The youngest daughter, Portia Ann, was born in Blandford, May 21, She was married to Asahel North, Jr. Seven children were born of this marriage. She died April 4, , at Clyde, Ohio.

Her husband still survives her. He was twice married -- first, to Eliza Howard, of Mantua, in To them nine children were born. His wife died in Minnesota in His second marriage was with Mrs.

McWhorter, in , by whom he had one son. He died January 15, , at Milan, Ohio. His widow is still living. Eli Hector was born January 1, , in Blandford. He was also twice married -- first, to Miss Amanda Snow, of Mantua, by whom he had four children.

She died in Illinois in He married again in , Mrs. Samantha Wooster, by whom he had two children. He died in Cornwall, Illinois, April 5, Nettleton, April 1, , in Bainbridge. There were five children born of their marriage, four of whom are living, as are also the parents. Very soon after the settlement of the McConoughey family in Bainbridge, came Jasper Lacey and family, and settled on lot seven, tract three, now owned by Leverett Gorham.

They remained but two or three years, and removed to Aurora, Portage county. In a son was born to them, which was the second birth in the township. The third family that settled in the township was that of Gamaliel H. Kent, who emigrated from Suffield, Connecticut, in , and stopped in Warren, Ohio, one year, when they removed to Aurora, Portage county, where they remained five years, whence they removed to Bainbridge in , and took up lots six and nineteen in tract three , upon which the elder sons, Elihu L.

In the autumn of they built a log cabin and sowed a small piece to wheat, which was the first sowen in the township. Kent's family, at the time of their arrival in Bainbridge, consisted of wife and five children, three sons and two daughters, all of whom eventually married and settled in the neighborhood of the homestead.

The eldest son, L. Elihu, married Clarissa Blish, of Mentor, and resided on the homestead till his death, which occurred September 14, , at which time he was thirty-seven years old. She is remembered by those who formed her acquaintance in her earlier life, as a woman whose mental endowments were far above the ordinary.

She is now nearly eighty-five years of age, and retains her mental and physical vigor to a remarkable degree. She resides with a niece in Solon. In the winter of Mr. Kent's house, with nearly all its contents, was burned. This regional view shows the striking visual effect of the valley-and-ridge topography of the Appalachian Mountains as viewed from the International Space Station. The image shows more than km mi of this low mountain chain from northeast Pennsylvania top right to southern West Virginia, where a dusting of snow covers a patch of land lower left.

Sunglint reflections reveal details of the Chesapeake Bay and the great bend of the Potomac River. Cities are difficult to detect from space during daylight hours, so the sickle-shaped bend of the river is a good visual guide for astronauts trying to photograph the nation's capital, Washington D.

The farm-dominated Piedmont Plateau is the light-toned area between the mountains and the bay. The Appalachian Mountains appear striped because the ridges are forested, providing a dense and dark canopy cover, while the valleys are farmed with crops that generally appear as lighter-toned areas.

Farmland is even lighter than usual in this image because the fields are fallow after the harvest. Photo courtesy of NASA.

Formal garden as seen from a balcony at the Nemours Mansion, Wilmington, Delaware. The Gardens are the largest French formal gardens in North America and are patterned after the gardens of Versailles. The gilded statue represents Achievement. When they are turned off, the entire Long Walk is reflected in the pool. The Mansion was built in by industrialist Alfred I.

The Temple of Diana is in the far background. The Gardens are one of the premier botanical gardens in the United States. The silver garden inside one of the conservatories at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania.

Part of the Red Rocks sandstone formation in the Sedona area of Arizona. The rocks appear to glow reddish orange in the early morning or evening sunlight. Bell Rock is a butte south of Sedona, Arizona composed of horizontal beds of late Permian approx. Rock formations in the Sedona area of Arizona display their distinctive horizontal sedimentary rock layers.

Kapalua Beach Trail on the island of Maui. The trail runs for 2. The late afternoon sun sparkles on the channel between Lahaina, Maui and the island of Lanai. A view from the road to Haleakala on Maui shows the lush valley that lies between Kahului Bay on the right and Maalaea Bay on the left. The tallest peak on the mountain is 3, m 10, ft above sea level, which is frequently high enough to overlook the clouds.

The oblong crater is roughly 11 km 7 mi long, 3 km 2 mi wide, and m 2, ft deep and lies within Haleakala National Park. A vista from the visitors center at the top of Haleakala in Maui. In the distance, km 80 mi away, lies the peak of Mauna Kea on the big island of Hawaii. Flying buttresses of the Cathedral Church of St. The memorial - located on the National Mall between the Lincoln Memorial seen in the background and the Washington Monument - highlights both the Atlantic and Pacific theaters of the war.

A view of Georges Bank, a large elevated area of the sea floor that separates the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Cod and Cape Cod Bay visible at the center of the image can be seen in this generally south-looking view. Cape Cod is a narrow peninsula, glacial in origin, that is constantly changing as winds and water move sand along the shoreline.

Cape Cod extends km 65 mi east and north into the Atlantic Ocean. A portion of Martha's Vineyard may be seen in the upper right corner of the image. The front or back yards of homes on Tangier Island, Virginia are well tended.

Miniature lighthouses decorate many a front or back yard. The crowded cemetery on Tangier Island, Virginia is dominated by just a few families. Many of the island's population, which numbers about , still speak a distinct Cornish dialect dating to the late 17th century when the island was first settled.

Tangier Island, Virginia is located in the lower Chesapeake Bay. This house is typical of the local architecture. House facades generally display white siding, while shutters and roofs are of matching colors. Even the trash bins on Tangier Island, Virginia show a lighthouse motif. There are very few cars on the island; most folks get around by golf cart, bicycle, or on foot.

A scene on Ocean Drive in Miami, Florida. The city is famous for its Art Deco buildings. A street scene in Key West, Florida, a historic sea port at the southernmost tip of the Florida Keys. A street scene in Key West, Florida, a historic sea port and southernmost city in the continental United States. Like the Keys, the Dry Tortugas are formed primarily of coral reefs over older limestone formations.

The islands were named "Dry Tortugas" upon discovery by Ponce de Leon in - "tortugas" means turtles in Spanish, and the islands are "dry" as no fresh water is found on them. Accessible only by boat or seaplane, the islands nevertheless have been designated a national park and are visited by hundreds every year. This view highlights three islands in the group: The Gateway Arch in St.

Louis, Missouri, the iconic symbol of the city. The monument honors the westward expansion of the United States, much of which began in this city. Built between and but not opened to the public until , the stainless steel-sheathed structure is hollow to accomodate a unique tram system that takes visitors to an observation deck at the top. Both the height and width of the arch are m ft. The structure is the tallest monument in the United States and the tallest stainless steel monument in the world.

Small, blocky shapes of towns, fields, and pastures surround the graceful swirls and whorls of the Mississippi River shown in this false-color satellite image.

Countless oxbow lakes and cutoffs accompany the meandering river south of Memphis, Tennessee, on the border between Arkansas and Mississippi. The "Mighty Mississippi" is the largest river system in North America. Image courtesy of USGS. Center pivot irrigation systems created these circular patterns in crop land near Garden City, Kansas.

In this false-color satellite image, the red circles indicate irrigated crops of healthy vegetation. The light-colored circles represent harvested crops. Garden City, located just off the top edge of the image, is in Finney County in southwestern Kansas. The Arkansas River flows eastward across the upper right corner of the image.

This part of western Kansas used to be short grass prairie, but has now given way to irrigated agriculture of corn, wheat, and sorghum. The water is drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer that underlies an area from Wyoming to Texas. Turbid waters from the third-longest river system in the world spill out into the Gulf of Mexico where their suspended sediment is deposited to form the Mississippi River Delta.

Like the webbing on a duck's foot, marshes and mudflats in this satellite photo prevail between the shipping channels that have been cut into the delta. The deltaic progression has advanced South Louisiana's coastline km mi over 5, years. In , Hurricanes Rita and Katrina destroyed much of the delta and rising sea levels have increased erosion. Northern Arizona and the Grand Canyon are captured in this satellite image, with north to the left. In addition to the Grand Canyon itself, which is visible in the western lower half of the image, other landmarks include Lake Powell, on the left, and Humphreys Peak and Sunset Crater National Monument on the right.

Meteor Crater appears as a small dark depression with a brighter rim, and is just visible along the upper right-hand edge. The Grand Canyon in northern Arizona is a favorite for astronauts shooting photos from the International Space Station, as well as one of the best-known tourist attractions in the world. The steep walls of the Colorado River canyon and its many side canyons make an intricate landscape that contrasts with the dark green, forested plateau to the north and south.

The Colorado River has done all the erosional work of carving away cubic kilometers of rock in a geologically short period of time.

Visible as a darker line snaking along the bottom of the canyon, the river lies at an altitude of m 2, ft , thousands of meters below the North and South Rims.

Temperatures are furnace-like on the river banks in the summer. But Grand Canyon Village, the classic outlook point for visitors, enjoys a milder climate at an altitude of 2, m 6, ft. The Colorado Plateau spans northern Arizona, southern Utah, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado and is well known for its striking landscapes and broad vistas - an impression enhanced in this view from the International Space Station.

This astronaut photograph highlights part of the Utah-Arizona border region of the Plateau, and includes several prominent landforms. The Colorado River, dammed to form Lake Powell in , crosses from east to west which is left to right here because the astronaut was looking south; north is towards the bottom of the image.

The confluence of the Colorado and San Juan Rivers is also visible. Sunglint - sunlight reflected off a water surface back towards the observer - provides a silvery, mirror-like sheen to some areas of the water surfaces. The geologic uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to rapid downcutting of rivers into the flat sedimentary bedrock, leaving spectacular erosional landforms. One such feature, The Rincon left center , preserves evidence of a former meander bend of the Colorado River.

Areas of greenery along the banks of the Colorado River as it winds through the Grand Canyon in Arizona. In places, the canyon is 1. The sedimentary layers exposed in the canyon date back 2 billion years!

In the American Southwest, transitions from one ecosystem to another can be dramatic and abrupt. This certainly is true in northern Arizona, where the parched Painted Desert, shown in this enhanced satellite image in a palette of purples, adjoins Sitgreaves National Forest shades of green , a realm of pine woodlands with abundant wildlife.

Within the Painted Desert lie the Hopi Buttes, a field of ancient volcanic cones, seen here as a scattering of dark, circular shapes near the top of the photograph. The Painted Desert's spectacular colors originate with iron and manganese minerals embedded in stratified layers of siltstone, mudstone, and shale. At 86 m ft below sea level, Death Valley, California, is one of the hottest, driest places on the planet.

On average, the area sees only about 5 cm 2 in of rain a year, and summer temperatures routinely soar above 38 degrees Celsius degrees Fahrenheit.

At night, temperatures drop considerably, and many animals in Death Valley are nocturnal as a result. Plants and animals living in this punishing environment have had to adapt to extremes of temperature and aridity.

This Landsat image is compiled from observations on 11 June and 20 July Green indicates vegetation, which increases with altitude. The peaks of Death Valley National Park sport forests of juniper and pine. The dots of brilliant green near the right edge of the image fall outside park boundaries, and probably result from irrigation.

On the floor of the valley, vegetation is sparse, yet more than 1, different species eke out an existence in the park. The varying shades of brown, beige, and rust indicate bare ground; the different colors result from varying mineral compositions in the rocks and dirt. Although they appear to be pools of water, the bright blue-green patches in the scene are actually salt pans that hold only a little moisture.

Los Angeles at night as seen from the International Space Station. After sunset, the borders of "The City of Angels" are defined as much by its dark terrain features as by its well-lit grid of streets and freeways.

Over 13 million people inhabit the coastal basin bounded roughly by the Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mountains to the north and the Chino Hills and Santa Ana Mountains to the east and southeast. Oahu is the most populated of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii's capital of Honolulu stretches along its southern shore. Just to the east of Honolulu is Waikiki Beach, with throngs of tourists and dozens of high-rise hotels.

Overlooking Waikiki is Diamond Head, a volcanic crater formed some , years ago extinct for about , years. The clouds in the right hand corner of this image are an almost permanent feature of Oahu. Trade winds blowing from the northeast are stopped by the m 3, ft high mountain range, where they rain out most of their moisture. As a result, the windward side of Oahu is usually cloudy, and the leeward side is relatively clear and dry. The harbor still serves as a US Navy base.

This remarkably cloud-free view shows the range of ecological diversity present on the aptly nicknamed Big Island of Hawaii. At 10, sq km 4, sq mi , the island of Hawaii is nearly twice as large as all of the other Hawaiian islands combined. Many of the world's climate zones may be found on Hawaii for two related reasons: The Big Island is home to Mauna Kea, the tallest sea mountain in the world at 4, m 13, ft and the tallest mountain on the planet - if you measure from seafloor to summit, a distance of more than 9, m 32, ft.

Despite Mauna Kea's height, it is Mauna Loa that dominates the island. With an altitude of about 4, m 13, ft - the actual number varies depending on volcanic activity - Mauna Loa is the most massive mountain in the world.

Temperatures dip low at the summits of these peaks, resulting in a tree-free polar tundra, pale brown in this image. The mountains help shape rainfall patterns on Hawaii so that desert landscapes exist side-by-side with rainforests. In fact, average yearly rainfall ranges from mm 8 in to 10, mm in. Trade winds blow mostly from the east-northeast, and the sea-level breezes hit the mountains and get forced up, forming rainclouds. The east side of the island is lush and green with tropical rainforest.

Much less moisture makes it to the lee side of the mountains. The northwestern shores of Hawaii are desert. Kona, on the western shore, receives plenty of rain because the trade winds curve back around the mountains and bring rain.

Pale green areas on all sides of the island are agricultural land and grassland. The other environmental force painting Hawaii's canvas is volcanism. However, in this department, Kilauea is the superlative - it is one of the world's most active volcanoes. A small puff of steam rises from an erupting vent in this image. Black and dark brown lava flows extend from both Kilauea and Mauna Loa. Hanauma Bay is a snorkeler's paradise on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu.

The Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii is considered one of the most important astronomical viewing sites in the world. The white patch in the foreground is snow. The caldera of Mt. Helens in Washington state, Some volcanic gases and a slowly rebuilding dome are visible. Approaching the blast zone of Mt. Music instrument sculptures represent Spokane's vibrant music legacy. A typical wide road in Post Falls, Idaho, with a mountain view and a western-style building on one side, and a contemporary building on the other.

Many businesses in Post Falls, Idaho set themselves up in colorful houses. A local Post Falls artist painted this memorial that honors veterans of all conflicts dating back to the pre-settlement warrior and forward to. A modified Ford convertible with a rumble seat at an antique car show in Sandpoint, Idaho. The city of Unalaska is split between the two islands: The wakes of several ships are visible in the surrounding waters.

As the westernmost point in North America, Attu is a rugged island dominated by snow-covered mountains blue in this false-color photo. It is 32 by 56 km 20 by 35 mi and lies at the far western end of the Aleutian chain, approximately km mi from the Alaskan mainland and km mi from the Siberian coastline.

The weather is characterized by persistently overcast skies, fog, high winds, and frequent cyclonic storms.

The Japanese invaded and occupied Attu in June Today, the island is home to a US Coastguard station and is a sanctuary to many of North America's rarest birds. An intricate maze of small lakes and waterways define the Yukon Delta at the confluence of Alaska's Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers with the frigid Bering Sea, shown in this false-color image. Wildlife abounds on the delta and offshore where sheets of sea ice form during the coldest months of the year.

Along the northern Arctic shores of Alaska, ice, snow, and cold dominate the landscape, even on a sunny day in June. This false-color satellite image shows electric blue ice and snow, the green vegetation of the hardy plants and mosses of the tundra, the deep blue of flowing rivers and open ocean, and pink-hued outcrops of bare, rocky ground.

The tundra runs the length of northern Alaska and is known as the North Slope. Only a surface "active layer" of the tundra thaws each season; most of the soil is permanently frozen year-round. On top of this permafrost, water flows to sea via shallow, braided streams or settles into pools and ponds. Along the bottom of the image, the rugged terrain of the Brooks Range Mountains is snow-covered in places blue areas and exposed pink areas in others.

The sea is not surrendering to approaching summer. Along the coast, fast ice still clings to the shore in a solid, frozen sheet. Mined for gold, silver, and copper, the region of Butte, Montana, had already earned the nickname of "The Richest Hill on Earth" by the end of the 19th century.

The demand for electricity increased the requirement for copper so much that by World War I, the city of Butte was a boom town. Well before World War I, however, copper mining had spurred the creation of an intricate complex of underground drains and pumps to lower the groundwater level and continue the extraction of copper.

Water extracted from the mines was so rich in dissolved copper sulfate that it was also "mined" by chemical precipitation for the copper it contained. In , copper mining in the area expanded with the opening of the Berkeley Pit. The mine took advantage of the existing subterranean drainage and pump network to lower groundwater until , when a new owner suspended operations.

After the pumps were turned off, water from the surrounding rock basin began seeping into the pit. By the time an astronaut on the International Space Station took this picture on 2 August , water in the pit was more than m ft deep. This image shows many features of the mine workings, such as the terraced levels and access roadways of the open mine pits gray and tan sculptured surfaces. A large gray tailings pile of waste rock and an adjacent tailings pond appear to the north of the Berkeley Pit.

Color changes in the tailings pond result primarily from changing water depth. Because its water contains high concentrations of metals such as copper and zinc, the Berkeley Pit is listed as a federal Superfund site. Farms in northwest Minnesota viewed from space resemble a patchwork quilt in this 10 September image. Fields change hue with the season and with the alternating plots of organic wheat, soybeans, corn, alfalfa, flax, or hay.

Although lush green fields dominate the image, some crops have already been harvested leaving squares of tan and brown. This image is a rare satellite view of a cloudless summer day over the entire Great Lakes region. The Great Lakes comprise the largest collective body of fresh water on the planet, containing roughly 18 percent of Earth's supply.

Only the polar ice caps contain more fresh water. The region around the Great Lakes basin is home to more than 10 percent of the population of the United States and 25 percent of the population of Canada. Open water appears blue or nearly black. The pale blue and green swirls near the coasts are likely caused by algae or phytoplankton blooms, or by calcium carbonate chalk from the lake floor. A view of Rockport, Massachusetts, some 40 km 25 mi northeast of Boston, at the tip of the Cape Ann peninsula.

First settled in the 17th century, the town's economy was long based on timber, fishing, and granite quarrying. Today it is a popular tourist site and artists colony.

Another view of the harbor at Rockport, Massachusetts, some 40 km 25 mi northeast of Boston, at the tip of the Cape Ann peninsula. The boulder-strewn shoreline accounts for the town's name. Seaside view at Gloucester, Massacusetts.

Settled in , the city - long a fishing and seafood center - claims to be America's oldest seaport. The ship is a replica of the 17th century Mayflower that transported the Pilgrims some of the earliest English settlers to the New World. A couple of the dwellings at Plimouth Plantation, a living history museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts that recreates the original English colony of the 17th century.

Built between and , Trinity Church in Boston Massachusetts is the archetype of the Richardsonian Romanesque style named after the architect , which is characterized by rough stone, heavy round-headed arches often springing from clusters of short squat columns , clay roof tiles, and a massive tower.

The facade of Trinity Church in Boston Massachusetts vividly displays many details of the Richardsonian Romanesque style. The church's reflection within the office building's windows creates an interesting juxtaposition of architectural styles.

A view of the interior of Trinity Church, Boston, Massachusetts, showing some of the architectural details, stained glass windows, and the church organ. Launched in , it was one of the first six original frigates built for the US Navy. Close up view of the bow of the USS Constitution. The ship is constructed of white and longleaf pine, white oak, and, most importantly, southern live oak.

The latter is particularly dense, heavy, and difficult to work, but very strong. Because her hull was built 53 cm 21 in thick in an era when 47 cm 18 in was common, she was able to withstand cannonades, thus earning the nickname of "Old Ironsides. A top platform and some of the rigging on the frigate USS Constitution.

Gun ports of the USS Constitution. Although rated as a gun frigate, the ship would often carry over 50 guns at a time. Constitution is 62 m ft long and The height of the central mainmast is 67 m ft.

This false-color satellite image shows greater New York City. The Island of Manhattan is jutting southward from top center, bordered by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east.

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